What does an elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) indicate
Open neural tube defects such as spina bifida
what does a lowered MSAFP indicate
Is intercourse during pregnancy safe?
Yes, although intercourse and orgasm are often contraindicated if a history or signs of preterm labor are present. Uterine contractions that accompany orgasm can stimulate labor and would be problematic if the woman were at risk for or had a history of preterm labor.
A pregnant woman demonstrates understanding of the nurse's instructions regarding relief of leg cramps if she
Extends her leg and dorsiflexes her foot during the cramp. Extending the leg and dorsiflexing the foot is the appropriate relief for a leg cramp.
What does an H&H and WBC test indicate
detects anemia/detects infection
what does a hemoglobin electrophoresis indicate
identifies women with hemoglobinopathies (sickle cell anmea, thalassemia)
What does the blood type, Rh, and irregular antibody indicate
identifies fetuses at risk for developing erythroblastosis fetalis or hyperbilirubinemia in neonatal period
what does the rubella titer indicate
immunity to rubella
what does the U/A indicate
identifies woman with DM, renal disease, HTN, infection
what does a urine culture indicate
identifies women with asymptomatic bacteriuria
what do renal function tests like BUN, creatinine, electrolytes, and creatinine clearance indicate
Evaluates level of possible renal compromise in women with a history of DM, HTN, or renal disease
What does the pap test indicate
screens for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, herpes simplex type 2 and HPV
and does the vaginal or rectal smear for HPV, chlamydia, gonorrhoea, and GBS indicate
screens high risk population for asymptomatic infection; GBS done at 35-37 weeks
What does the RPR/VDRL/FTA-ABS indicate
Identifies woman with untreated syphilis
what does the 1-hr glucose tolerance test indicate
screens for gestational DM done at initial visit for women with risk factors, done at 28 weeks for all pregnant women
what does the 3-hr glucose tolerance test indicate
screens for DM in women with elevated glucose level after 1-hr test; must have 2 elevated readings for dx
what is the cardiac evaluation; ECG; chest x-ray film and echo
evaluates cardiac function in women with a history of HTN or cardiac disease
How many additional calories are needed in the second trimester?
340 calories per day
How many additional calories are needed in the first trimester?
no additional calories needed
How many additional calories are needed in the 3rd trimester?
What is an inadequate weight gain?
less than 1 kg per month
What is excessive weight gain?
more than 3 kg per month
what are the four major goals of prenatal care
define the health status of mother and fetus
determine gestational age - monitor development
identify risk factors and minimize
provide appropriate education and counseling
what do you want to do for prenatal care in the 1st trimester
obtain their history, due date, physical exam, pelvic exam and blood work
what do you want to do for prenatal care in the 2nd trimester
measure the baby's growth, heartbeat, movement and mom's prenatal tests
what do you want to do for prenatal care in the 3rd trimester?
vag exam, check baby position, and cervical changes
what are normal cardiovascular changes in pregnancy