Geology 101 HW 10

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Geology 101 HW 10
2012-05-16 14:46:18
Geology Hydrology

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  1. Aquifer
    an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, orsilt) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well.
  2. Artesian Springs
    A spring whose water issues under artesian pressure, generally through some fissure or other opening in the confining bed that overlies the aquifer.
  3. Artesian Well
    a pumpless water source that uses pipes to allow underground water that is under pressure by gravity to rise to the surface.
  4. Bioremediation
    the use of microorganism metabolism to remove pollutants.
  5. Cone of depression
    The depression in the water table around a well defining the area of influence of the well.
  6. Geysers
    • a spring characterized by intermittent discharge of water ejected turbulently and accompanied by a vapour phase
    • water that is boiled underground by hot volcanic rock.
  7. Hotsprings
    a spring that is produced by the emergence of geothermally heated groundwater from the Earth's crust.
  8. Groundwater
    water located beneath the earths surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
  9. Porosity
    % of rock or sediment that is open ability to hold water
  10. Permeability
    ability to transmit water
  11. Type of rocks that are permeable:
    • Pumice
    • Sandstone
    • Limestone
  12. Types of rocks that are impermeable:
    • Unfractional obsidian
    • shale
  13. Aquitards
    impermeable rocks that inhibit the flow of water underground.
  14. Hard water
    water that has high mineral content (in contrast with “soft water”).
  15. Caves
    • Form in limestone
    • Limestione dissolves easily in weak acid.
    • Most groundwater is weakly acidic.
    • Ajoint in limestone with groundwater in it will slowly gets wider.