Biology3 Exam3

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  1. energy
    the capacity to do work
  2. 2 types of energy and their forms
    • kinetic: energy of movement -- light, heat, electricity
    • potential: energy of position -- bond energy, battery, position
  3. 1st law of thermodynamics
    energy cannot be created nor destroyed, but it can change its form
  4. 2nd law of thermodynamics
    energy is lost as heat when you convert it from one form to another form
  5. entropy
    the spontaneous reduction in ordered forms of energy, and an increase in randomness and disorder as reactions proceed [en "inside" G: trope "transformation"]
  6. activation energy (Ea)
    the minimum amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction
  7. exergonic
    reactants have more energy than the products therefore energy is released [G: exo, "outside" ergonic, "work"... "releasing energy in the form of work"
  8. endergonic
    products have more energy than the reactants; energy is absorbed [G: endo, "within" ergon, "work"]
  9. metabolism
    all the chemical reactions in a cell
  10. catalyst
    • molecules that speed up a reaction without being used up or permanently altered
    • only speeds up reactions that would normally occur
  11. enzyme
    • biological catalyst that increases the rate of a reaction
    • enzymes are three dimensional proteins (tertiary shape) lock and key principle
  12. chemical reaction for photosynthesis
    6CO2 + 6H2O -----light/chlorophyll---> C6H12O6 + 6O2

    • CO2 reduced to sugar as e- and H+ from water are added
    • H2O is oxidized when it loses e- and H+
    • OIL=> Oxygen Is Loss of electrons
    • RIG=> Reduction Is Gain of electrons
  13. wavelength
    the distance between crests of two successive waves of light
  14. pigment
    an organic molecule that can absorb light at a specific wavelength
  15. anatomy of a chloroplast
    • double membrane
    • thylakoid discs -- light dependent reactions
    • granum - stack of discs
    • stroma - thick fluid surrounding stacks -- light independent
    • lumen - thylakoid space
  16. photosystem I & II
    • a biochemical mechanism in plants by which chlorophyll absorbs light energy for photosynthesis.
    • I: (p700) -- wavelength of light is absorbed best at 700 nm (red)
    • II: (p680) -- wavelength of light is absorbed best at 680 nm (orange)
  17. light-dependent reaction.....
    where is occurs
    reactants and products
    what it provides for light-independent reaction
    • thylakoid disc
    • light & H2O ==> O2
    • 12 NADPH & 12 ATP to stroma
  18. light-independent reaction.....
    where is occurs
    reactants and products
    what it provides for light-dependent reaction
    • stroma
    • CO2 + H2O ==> glucose
    • NAD+ & ADP to thylakoid disc
  19. couple reactions
    the release of energy from exergonic reactions provides energy needed for endergonic reactions
  20. two types of cellular respiration
    • aerobic
    • anaerobic
  21. anatomy of a mitochondrion
    • double membrane organelle that converts sugars into ATP
    • cristae - where electron transport chain occurs
    • matrix - where Krebs cycle occurs
  22. glycolosis
    where does it take place?
    what does each molecule of glucose yield?
    • cytoplasm
    • 2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 pyruvate
  23. products of acetyl-CoA:
    • 2 CO2
    • 2 NADH
  24. products of Krebs cycle:
    • 6 NADH
    • 4 CO2
    • 2 FADH2
    • 2 ATP
  25. products of electron transport chain:
    32 ATP
  26. anaerobic respiration, plants vs animals
    what follows glycolosis?
    • plants: alcoholic fermentation
    • animals: lactate fermentation
  27. what type of bond holds together amino acids in proteins?
    peptide bond
  28. these 4 protein shapes gives each their function:
    • primary
    • secondary
    • tertiary
    • quarternary
  29. 3 components of a nucleic acid:
    • phosphate group
    • 5-carbon sugar
    • nitrogenous base
  30. purines have which nitrogen bases for DNA/RNA?
    how many rings do they have?
    • DNA: adenine & guanine
    • RNA: adenine & guanine
    • 2 ring structures
  31. pyrimidines have which nitrogen bases for DNA/RNA?
    how many rings do they have?
    • DNA: thymine & cytosine
    • RNA: uracil & cytosine
    • 1 ring structures
  32. what type of bonds hold nitrogenous bases together?
    how are they paired
    • hydrogen bonds
    • A==double bond==T (or U)
    • G===triple bond===C
  33. DNA
    • deoxyribonucleic acid
    • a double helix made of DNA nucleotides
  34. gene
    a segment of DNA molecule that codes for a specific trait
  35. what pairing forms the backbone of a DNA strand?
    phosphate of one of the nucleotides (5') binds with deoxyribose sugar of another nucleotide (3')
  36. DNA replication -- step 1: DNA helicase (a protein)...
    separates helix by breaking hydrogen bonds between nitrogen bases
  37. DNA replication -- step 2: DNA polymerase (a protein)...
    • this process copies a piece of DNA.
    • the polymerase "reads" an intact DNA strand as a template [Reads 3' to 5']
    • and uses it to synthesize the new strand [Adds 5' to 3']
    • pairs free DNA nucleotides with parent strand
    • bonds phosphate to sugar to form backbone to new strand
  38. Okazaki fragments
    short, newly synthesized DNA fragments that are formed on the lagging template strand during DNA replication.
  39. DNA ligase
    a specific enzyme that connects Okazaki fragments - joins backbones of the strands
  40. proteins are synthesized through these two processes:
    • transcription: the synthesis of RNA under the direction of DNA, in the nucleus
    • translation: the synthesis of protein under the direction of RNA, in the cytoplasm
  41. start codon
    AUG (methionine)
  42. stop codons:
    • UAG, UAA, UGA
    • U Go Away
    • U Are Away
    • U Are Gone
  43. enzymes read DNA from _____ ==> _____
    enzymes lay nucleotides from ____ ==> ____
    • enzymes read DNA from 3' ==> 5'
    • enzymes lay nucleotides from 5' ==> 3'
  44. 3 ypes of RNA:
    • messenger RNA (mRNA): carries the code for a protein-coding gene from DNA to ribosomes
    • ribosomal RNA (rRNA): combines with proteins to form ribosomes, the structures that link amino acids to form a protein
    • transfer RNA (tRNA): carries amino acids to the ribosomes
Card Set
Biology3 Exam3
Biology3 Exam3
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