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The Monroe Doctrine
- John quincy adams was devoted to consolidation the power of the national goverment home and abroad.
- Adam feared that spain would try to regain its latin american colonies.
- He drafted a section of the presidents annual messages to congress that became known as Monroe Doctrine.
- Expressed 3 principles
- -1. the us would oppose any futher efforts at colonization by europian powers in the americans(agaist spain and france)
- -2. the us would obstain from involvement in the wars of europe
- -3.Monroe warned European powers not to interfere w/ newly independant states of latin America.
- it remained as american foreign policy for decades
- based on the assumption that old and new world formed separeate political & diplomatic systems, it claimed for the U.S. the role of domainantower in the western hemisphere
- Commercial implicants were important to adam as political ones.
- latin america was a major market for britash goods
- british were involved in mining, banking and comercial enterprise
- adam hoped that us could eventually assume britains enocomic role
- South California stood alone during the crisis.
- The elaboration of the compact theory of the Constitution gave the south a well developed political philosophy to which it would turn when sectional comflict became more intense
- calhvon denied that nullification was a step toward disunion
- the only way to ensure the stability of a large diverse nation was for each states to be assured that national actions would never trample on its rights or vital interests
- Calhors theory of concurrent majority each major interest including slave holders, shoud have a veto overall measures that affect it
- To jackson-nullification amont to nothingless that disunion.
- South carolina declared the tax on imported goods null and void in the state after the following february.
- jackson persuaded the congress to enact a force bill aouthorizating him to use the army & navy to collect custom duties
- South carolina then rescinded the ordinace of nullification allowing it proceed to nullify The Force Act
- Calhoum avandoned democracy party for whigs
- Clay and webster became part of a formidable trio of political leaders
- California had a non indian population of less than 15,000 when mexican war ended.
- In 1840s ten times as many americans imigrated as to california
- this change dramatically after january 1848
- --when gold was discovered in the foodhills of the sierra nevada mountains at a sawwill owned by the swiss immigrant johann a sutter.
- A mania for gold spread thruout the world
- --By ship & land, newcommers pured into california
- the non-indian population rosse to 200,000 by1852
- Californias gold rush population was incredibly diverse
- Expirienced miners flooded in from mexico and south america
- Ten of thousands of americans arrived from the east and from overseas from irish, germans, italians and australians
- 25000 chinese land men who sing longterm labor contracts w/ chines merchants who leased them to nining and railroad companies and other employers
- Most of the goldrush migrants were young men
- Women played manyroles in western mining communites, running restaurants and boarding houses
- working as laundresses, cooks and prostitures
- as late as 1860, californias male population out numbered bye nerly and 3 to one
The Common School
- It was the movement to stablish school
- Tax supported state school systems open to all children
- In the early 19th most children were educated in locally supported schools, private academies, charity schools or at home and many had no access to learning
- Horance Mann eras reform impulse.
- Mann embraced the new industrial order of his state
- he hoped that universal public education could restore equality to fractured society by bringing children from all classes 2gether in a common learning
- Education would equalize the conditions of men
- the view of free public educations as an avenue to social advancement was also shared by early labor movement
- Mann argued that schools would reinforce social stability by rescuing students from the influence of parents whofailed to instill the proper discipline
- Character building was as important as a fuctions of educations as reading writing, and arthmetic
the schools Silent Curriculum -- the obedience to authority/pronptness inattendance/organizing