Enzymes and Bilirubin
Card Set Information
Enzymes and Bilirubin
MLT Enzymes bilirubin proteins
Enzymes and bilirubin
What is the largest gland and most versatile organ in the body?
What is the weight of the adult liver?
The liver is devided into how many major lobes?
This is a branch of the aorta that supplies 20% overall blood and the majority of O
This drains the GI tract and transports the most recently absorbed material from intestines.
what is the main digestive chemical synthesized by the liver?
excretion of _____ is one of the most important liver functions.
What is the total daily bile production?
about 3 liter a day
one liter is excreted
during a meal what is bile secreted by?
where is bile stored between meals?
plasma protein and all blood clotting factors are produced in the liver except which one?
what is metabolized to form bile acids?
What is stored in the liver?
Fat soluble vitamins (A,D,E,K)
water soluble vitamins such as B
Carotene into vitamin A
What is the group of peptides formed in the liver that mediates growth hormone.
What is the most important mechanism in detoxification and drug metabolism in the liver?
Microsomal Drug Metabolism System
This is a waste product of RBC breakdown
When the heme ring from RBC destruction splits what is formed?
When biliverdin is reduced in the RE system what is formed?
Which type of blirubin is insoluble?
When mesobilirubin is oxidized what is formed?
What are the three ways that urobilinogen is removed from the body?
This is a yellowish pigmentation in the sclera of the eyes, skin, and mucus membrane.
This type of Jaundice is caused by increased RBC destruction or a larger load than the liver can handle.
What are the three conditions associated with hemolytic (prehepatic) jaundice?
What are the laboratory findings of hemolytic (prehepatic) jaundice.
increased unconjugated bilirubin
This type of jaundice is caused by a conjugation failure, bilirubin transport disruption, or general hepatic damage.
What are the laboratory findings associated with hepatic jaundice?
increased conjugated/unconjugated bilirubin
increased or normal urobilinogen
This type of jaundice is caused by obstruction of common bile duct.
post hepatic (obstructive) jaundice
what are the laboratory findings of Post hepatic (obstructive) jaundice.
increased conjugated bilirubin
urobilinogen in urine will be decreased or 0.
These are typically very large proteins that react with one or only a few types of molecules.
This enzyme structure shows the specific amino acid sequence.
This enzyme structure shows the stearic arrangement of chains.
This enzyme structure shows the 3-D configuration.
This enzyme structure contains >1 polypeptide chain
What is the naming of enzymes based on?
what it reacts with
how it reacts
add -ase ending
This organization created a standardized classification of naming enzymes in 1961.
international union of biochemistry (IUB)
This model, created by Emil Fisher, assumes that an enzyme active site will only accept a specific substrate.
Lock and key model
This model recognizes that there is much flexibility in an enzyme's structure. according to the model, an enzyme is able to conform to a substrate.
induced fit model
This is the site where the reaction actually occurs.
This is the area that holds substrate in proper place.
these are molecules that react with specific enzymes
When substrate concentration is lower than the enzyme, substrate readily binds to the enzyme, binding increases as more substrate is added. This is called what?
Once substrate concentration reaches a point of maximum enzyme activity (saturation), the rate of reaction becomes dependent upon enzyme concentration.
How does changes in pH and temp affect enzyme reactions?
it causes denaturation
most enzymatic reactions occur at a pH of what?
what is the optimum temp for most enzymatic reactions?
Enzyme concentrations are usually expressed in what?
units per liter (IU/L)
The standardized reporting unit in which the amount of enzyme that will catalyze a reaction of one micromole of substrate per minute is known as what?
This enzyme is found in skeletal muscles, heart, and brain, increased levels are often used to detect disorders of muscle and cardiac tissues, sucha as AMI.
creatine kinase (CK)
This is the brain type of CK that migrates fastest in an electric field.
This hybrid type of CK migrates second furthest and is elevated in AMI and serious muscle disorders.
This is the muscle type of CK that doesnt migrate but is elevated in AMI and muscle disorders.
This enzyme is found in the heart, liver, skeletal muscles, kidneys, and erythrocytes, increased levels indicate cardiac disorders, but the highest levels are seen in pernicious anemia.
Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD)
Elevataions of this enzyme are limited mainly to hepatocellular disorders and muscular dystrophies. It is not useful in the diagnosis of AMI.
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)
Highest concentrations of this enzyme are found in the liver and is elevated in hepatic disorders.
activity of this enzyme in bones is confined to osteoblasts
clinical significance of this enzyme is predominant in obstructive conditons, and durring pregnacy especially in preeclampsia, eclampsia, and threatened abortion.
This enzyme has the same function as ALP but at an acidic pH, it's richest source is the prostate.
acid phosphatase (ACP)
This enzyme is used in the diagnosis of prostatic carcinomas.
This enzyme is an excellent indicator for chronic alcoholism, and is useful in monitoring the effects fo abstention from alcohol.
This enzyme catalyzes the breakdown of starch and glycogen and is found in the pancreas and salivary gland.
This enzyme is used to diagnose acute pancreatitis but is also elevated in mumps.
This enzyme is used in the breakdown of fats, is found in the pancreas, and elevated in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis
deficiency of this enzyme leads to drug-induced hemolytic anemias
These are the two methods of spectrophotometry bilirubin testing.
This method of bilirubin testing uses caffine.
Bilirubin tests should be protected from _________.
what is the normal ranges for adult bilirubin.
: 0.0-0.2 mg/dL
: 0.2-0.8 mg/dL
: 0.2-1.0 mg/dL
what is the reference ranges for premature total bilirubin
3-5 days:10-12 mg/dL
what is the reference range for full term total bilirubin.
: 6-7 mg/dL
: 4-6 mg/dL
what is the reference range for total CK
: 15-160 U/L (37
: 15-130 U/L (37
what are the normal ranges for CK-MB
<6% of total CK
What is the reference range of total serum LD
100-225 u/L (37
what is then normal range for serum AST
what is the reference range for serum ALT
what is the reference range for prostatic ACP.
what is the reference range for GGT.
: 6-45 U/L
: 5-30 U/L
what is the reference range for AMS
: 25-130 U/L
: 1-15 units/hr
what is the reference range for serum LPS.
What is the enzyme testing method that uses first or zero order kinetics.
what is the enzymatic testing method that measures reactions at specific times in intervals.
______ affects most enzyme testings
measurements of ______ LD is usually not diagnostically helpful.
what are the most frequently used enzyme for diagnosing/monitoring AMI.