Anthro 100 Final

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Anthro 100 Final
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2012-05-14 21:25:55
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anthro 100 final
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  1. Edward Tylor
    Occupation
    Book
    • British Anthropologist
    • Primitive Culture
  2. Ethnocentrism
    judging others from one’s own cultural perspective
  3. Cultural Relativism
    accepting that all cultures are likely to have different perspectives and taken-for-granted ways of behavior
  4. Emic
    Seeing something from a native's POV
  5. Etic
    Seeing something from a non-native POV (outsider)
  6. Ethnography is always: (4 things)
    • 1. Partial
    • 2. Positioned
    • 3. Provisional
    • 4. Based on dialogue
  7. Storytelling
    A way of making sense of events; arranging them in a sequence, selecting, sorting
  8. How are Papua New Guinea (First Contact) and Chungking Mansions similar?
    both connected by British colonialism
  9. Colonialism
    The domination of people in a territory by another group

    **Involves ongoing relations between metropole and colony
  10. Colonial transformations for indigenous people include: (3)
    • 1. Decimation of indigenous peoples by disease and violence
    • 2. Transformation of indigenous socioeconomic order
    • 3. Subjection of people and denial of local knowledge
  11. How many spoken languages in the world?
    6000-7000 known languages spoken today
  12. Reasons that languages become extinct? (3)
    • 1. Population loss
    • 2. Voluntary language shift
    • 3. Shift due to coercion
  13. Levels of endangered languages
    • 1. Vulnerable
    • 2. Endangered
    • 3. Extinct
  14. Salvage Enthnography
    Collecting cultural information in order to preserve it in history before it goes extinct
  15. Franz Boas (2)
    • 1. Championed Cultural Relativism
    • 2. Used salvage ethnography with Native Americans
  16. Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
    Language influences how we understand and think about the world, and how we dwell with the world;
  17. Steven Feld's work
    Studied people of Kaluli, New Guinea and their knowledge and symbolic system formed around birds (certain calls indicated different times of day)
  18. With language loss there is: (3)
    • 1. Loss of indigenous knowledge of all kinds, including oral literature
    • 2. Traditional environmental knowledge disappears
    • 3. Loss of ways of dwelling in the world
  19. Egalitarian Society
    all share roughly the same degree of wealth, power, prestige
  20. Stratified society
    some groups have more access and control of wealth, power,prestige.
  21. Status
    • Position in a social structure
    • Sum or rights and duties associated with the position
  22. Role
    Customary performing of the rights and duties associated with a status
  23. Institution
    clusters of social statuses and groups that share a common focus
  24. Intersectionality
    Overlapping systems of inequality, shaping each other
  25. Hegemony
    Rule by persuasion
  26. Exchange Systems (3)
    • 1. Reciprocity
    • 2. Redistribution
    • 3. Market
  27. Bronislaw Malinowski
    Group
    Book(?)
    Focus
    • Group: Trobriand Islanders
    • Book(?): Argonauts of the Western Pacific
    • Focus: Kula ring-valuable necklaces and shells passed between tradingpartners across the islands
  28. Marcel Mauss
    Book
    Focus
    • Book: The Gift
    • Focus: We carry obligations to give, receive, and reciprocate
  29. Forms of Reciprocity (3) Name and Define
    • 1. Generalized: giving without expectation of immediate or specific return.
    • 2. Balanced: giving with expectation of return within roughly specified time and exchange roughly equal
    • 3. Negative: attempting to gain something for nothing
  30. Example of Redistribution
    Moka system in New Guinea: prestige through giving, creates Big Men
  31. Commodity Fetishism
    How a commodity can be imbued with meanings beyond its use value

    eg. breast cancer awareness bracelets
  32. U.S: Anthropological Society of Washington
    male only from ____ to ____
    1879-1899
  33. Women’s Anthropological Society
    ____ to ____
    1885-1899
  34. Anthropological society of Washington becomes _____ in _____
    • American Anthropological Association
    • 1902
  35. Founder of Women's Anthropological Soceity:
    Mathilda Coxe Stevenson
  36. lhamana/Berdache
    • Zuni/General
    • Third gender group in a which a person plays both men's and women's roles
  37. Margaret Mead
    Student of:
    Book:
    Studied:
    • Student of: Franz Boas
    • Book: Coming of Age in Somoa
    • Studied: adolescent girls in Samoa, compared to the U.S.
  38. Maria Lepowsky
    Place:
    Book:
    Studied:
    • Place: Vanatinai, New Guinea
    • Book: Fruit of the Motherland: Gender in an Egalitarian Society
    • Studied: kinship is reckoned through matrilineal bonds and the sister-brother relationship key in Vanatinai
  39. Kinship
    System of social relationships based on birth, marriage, and nurturance
  40. Rites of Passage
    Define and name person associated with it
    Marks transitions through space and time

    Arnold Van Gennep
  41. Three stages of rites of passage:
    • 1. Separation from structure
    • 2. Threshold
    • 3. Reincorporation into structure
  42. Liminality
    • a “betwixt-and-between” state
    • between structure and position
  43. Communitas
    Warm fellow feeling
  44. Rituals of Inversion
    carnivalesque moments in a society whensocial hierarchies and expected everyday behavior are suspended,even turned upside-down.
  45. Suhag
    Genre of wedding songs for brides in Kangra
  46. 2 types of castes in Kangra
    • 1. Varna
    • 2. Jati
  47. cosmology
    a group's understanding of its place in the universe
  48. Palawan kinship organization
    bilateral (ties traced through both parents)
  49. Multiculturalism
    Idea that governments should protect cultural differences
  50. Nationalism
    Belief in superiority of a particular nation
  51. Neoliberalism
    Belief in “the market” as best means of regulating and valuing life

    (minimal government intervention in business)
  52. Internal Colonialism
    Occurs when nation-state seeks control over minority populations living within territory claimed by the nation-state
  53. 3 genres of folklore (name and define)
    • 1. Myth: a sacred narrative that is told as true
    • 2. Legend: historical narrative, usually told as true
    • 3. Folktale: make-believe, set in a time outside of time
  54. Kirin Narayan's book
    Storytellers, Saints and Scoundrels: Folk Narrative as Hindu Religious Teaching

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