# RA - Facial Proportions

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1. Facial proportions
the mathematical relationship between one feature and another and/or one feature and the head
2. Canon of beauty
the mathematical relationship between one feature and another and/or one feature and the head in harmonious proportions

it is used as a norm (i.e. a guide)
3. Canon of ugliness
any deviation from the canon of beauty

beauty varies according to race, time culture, fashion, etc.
4. List the four causes that can cause ugliness
hereditary

pathological conditions (such as cancer)

injury (traumatic)

congenital defects
5. List examples of some of the causes of ugliness
scars

birthmarks

large/crooked nose

large ears

cauliflower ears

bucked teeth

harelip

protruding eyes

extreme receding chin

asymmetry
6. What are the values of facial proportions?
to make comparisons with a photograph

to note similarities and/or differences in size relationship
7. It is only when using ___________ (horizontal/vertical) lines that we need to differentiate between head and face
horizontal
8. Horizontal lines
transverse lines

they cross the face

they measure the length of the face OR the head
9. The head in considered to be proportioned in ____ (1/2's or 1/3's) whereas the face is divided into ___ (1/2's or 1/3's)

Line of closure eyes (1/2) divides the head in half not the face

All the rest of the horizontal lines 1/3's and 1/9's

face = 1/3's or 1/9's
superior: vertex/apex of cranium

half: line of closure eyes

inferior: base of chin
11. 3 equal divisions of the length of the face: horizontal: 1/3's

often referred to as "thirds of the face"
upper: hairline to eyebrow

middle: eyebrow to base of nose

lower: base of nose to base of chin
12. Face length: horizontal: 1/9's
hairline = 0/9 or 9/9

blank = 1/9 or 8/9

blank = 2/9 or 7/9

eyebrow = 3/9 or 6/9

line of closure eye = 4/5 or 5/9

blank = 5/9 or 4/9

base of nose = 6/9 or 3/9

line of closure = 7/9 or 2/9

labio-mental sulcus = 8/9 or 1/9

base of chin = 9/9 or 0/9
13. List all 8 horizontal lines for head and face in order from top to bottom
vertex/apex of cranium

hairline

eyebrow

line of closure eyes

base of nose

line of closure mouth

labio-mental sulcus

base of chin
14. List all 8 horizontal lines for head and face in order from bottom to top
base of chin

labio-mental sulcus

line of closure mouth

base of nose

line of closure eyes

eyebrow

hairline

vertex/apex of cranium
15. Vertical lines: These measure the width of the face or head

these divide the face OR head into 5 eye-widths
mid-sagital/midline

medial canthus (tangent to the wings of the nose)

midline of the eye (corner of the mouth)

lateral canthus (helps us locate the side of the face)

REMEMBER: the side of the face is one eye-width beyond the lateral canthus
16. 3 equal divisions of the lower third of the face

from base of nose to base of chin

sometimes referred to as the 9ths of the face OR the 3rds of the lower third of the face
base of nose to line of closure mouth

line of closure mouth to labio-mental sulcus (inferior labial groove)

labio-mental sulcus to base of chin
17. Ear passage to the tip of the nose is the same as all of these:
- hairline to base of nose

- eyebrow to base of chin

- ear passage to ear passage through the head
18. Vertical measurements are to be described as "length" by means of horizontal lines
Horizontal measurements are to be described as "width" by means of vertical lines
19. Length of nose (use horizontal lines)
- hairline to eyebrow

- eyebrow to base of nose

- base of nose to base of chin

- first two joints of the index finger

- the distance from the outer canthus of the eye to the ear passage (lateral canthus to the external auditory meatus)

- according to the canon of beauty: ears and nose measure the same
20. Width of the eye
- face or head = 5 eyes wide

- the base of the nose = 1 eye wide

- the mouth = 2 eyes wide

- lateral canthus to lateral canthus = 3 eyes wide

- lateral canthus to side of face = 1 eye wide
21. Length of the ear
- hairline to eyebrow

- eyebrow to base of nose

- base of nose to base of chin

- first two joints of the index finger

- the distance from the outer canthus of the eye to the ear passage (lateral canthus to the external auditory meatus)

- 3 times the length from the base of the nose to line of closure mouth

- the other ear (not exact same length but close enough)

- according to the canon of beauty: ears and nose measure the same
22. Restoration of a mouth: width and line of closure
- width: vertical line through the center of the eye

- width twice the width of the base of the nose

- width: 2 eyes wide

- width: 2/5th the width of the face

- width: twice the distance from medial canthus to lateral canthus

- line of closure: 2/3rds the distance up from base of chin to base of nose

- line of closure: 1/3rd the distance from base of nose to base of chin

- line of closure: half-way between base of nose and the labio-mental sulcus

- line of closure: 7/9ths the distance from normal hairline to base of chin

line of closure: 2/9ths the distance from base of chin to normal hairline
23. Restoration of an eye:
- base of nose

- 1/2 the width of mouth

- medial canthus to medial canthus

- the other eye
24. Width and length of the face
the width of the face is 2/3rds the length