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Igneous rocks that formed slow below the surface are called
Mt. Saint Helens, Mt. Pinatubo and other explosive volcanoes have magmas that are ________ in composition.
a tabular igneos intrusive body that cuts across other rocks is called a
small steep sided volcanoes built up of unconsolidated pyroclastic material (tephra) are called
igneous rocks that formed fast at the surface are called
which of the following list contains only fossil fuels?
coal, oil, natural gas
the hawaiian volcanoes Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea are characterized by gentle slopes compose of numerous basaltic flows. These are examples of..
intrusive igneous rocks commonly have_____crystals that volcanic igneous rocks.
Bowen's reaction series is important because it
- helps explain the mineral assemlages of igneous rocks
- it helps explain the sequence of crystalization
- it helps explain how a magma can change composition over time
most og the hydrocarbons within oil and natural gas are derived from the breakdown of organic matter from once living
coarse grained diorite is most similar in mineral composition to fine grained
aside from the possibility of a meltdown, nuclear power provides no other major problems or concerns
_______ are large intrusive (plutonic) igneous bodies consisting of many plutons.
lava flows with blocky, sharp irregular surfaces are called
ancient underwater eriptions can be recognized in the rock record by the presence of
the hawaiian island are an example of volcanism cause by a ____
basalts typically form at
divergent plate boundaries, oceanic hot spots
which of the follwing is a nonrenewable resource?
ropey lava flows are called_____
important volatiles in magmas include
water and carbon dioxide
Mt. Pinatubo formed in which of the following geologic settings
oceanic-oceanic convergent plate boundary
the most explosive volcanoes, consisting of alternating layers of pyroclastic flows and solidified lava. that are found landward of subduction zones are called___________
the greatest hazard to human life associated with volcanoes is___
compsed of small crystals from fast cooling
no minerals present because it cooled so fast
composed of visable crystals from slow cooling
glassy, felsic compsition
rock : Scoria
vesicular, mafic composition
vesicular, felsic composition
aphanitic, mafic composition
phaneritic, felsic compostion
Bowen's Reaction Series:
1: olivine 2: Augite 3:hornblende 4: biotite 5: sodic plagioclase 6: orthoclase 7: muscovite 8:quartz 9: plagioclase
_____ are volcanic mudflows that can be very destructive
______ were erupted as blobs of molten lava that cooled into spindle (football) shaped rocks as it fell thtough the air.
_____is molten rock above the ground
most explosive volcanoes occur near______ plate boundaries
____flows can travel over 100mph killing everything in their way.
when intruding magma melts the country rock (bedrock) and that material is added to the magma, this proceed is called ___
_____ are commonly malleable, ductile and good conductors of electricity and have many applications.
_____are large depression formed by collapse after a major eruption.
coal is the altered remains of ____
______ mineral resources include talc, gypsum and halite.
explain each of the factors that determine the natural of volcanic eruption. specifically relate these to the volcanoes eruptive history. (passive vs. Explosive)
- example: Mt. St. Helen
- -low temp
- -vescocity thick
- -high pressure strata
- -high temp
- - shield
define renewable and nonrenewable resources. Give at least 3 examples of each (excluding water)
- Renewable: natural remplished over time sustainable long term
- Ex: solor wind and biomass hydo electric
- nonrenewable : which cannot be produced, grown, generated, or used on a scale which cansustain its consumption rate takes million of yeas to make
- EX: coal petroleum, fossil fuel
discuss the early warning signs of volcanic eruption
- escretion of ash
- sulfur water
- increase temp
discuss the formation of oil. be sure to include the sources of the hydrocarbons and the temp. ranges
- diatons are presented along with planquenten and they are heated up between 90
- and 160 degrees made of ocean setements
record from at least___ seismographs are necessary for determing an earthquake epicenter.
regional metamorphism is characterized by ____temperatures and ___ pressure
the ________ era is characterized by "age of mammals"
If there is 6.25% of the parent isotope and 93.75% of the daughter isotope presnt in a rock sample and we know the 1/2 life is 10 million years. how old is the rock?
*40 million years*
the potential for the a large earthquake on a fault segment can be evaluated based on
- statistical data of post earthquakes
- seismic gaps
an unconformity where sedimentary rock sits on top of crystalline basement rock (igneous and metamorphic)is called
_____wer responsible for the Northrige earthquake and the Coalinga earthquake
blind thrust fault
most of the damage done by earthquakes is cause by these seismic wave
surface(L & R) waves
the common effect of earthquakes include (the Loma Prieta earthquake illustrated these nicely)
- ground rupture
- ground shaking
the difference in the arrival times of the P and S waves on a seismogram
helps geologist determin the distance to the epicenter
seismic waves radiate outward from _____ as energy is realsed during an earthuake
the hypocenter (focus)
contact metamorphism occurs when
magma "bakes" the rock intrudes
regional metamorphism affects rocks
over large areas near convergent plate boundaries
you are walking on the beach and the water starts rapidly receding .. what would be the most reasonable thing for you go?
head to higher ground because a Tsunami may hit
the unconformity where uplift strata is eroded with horizontal strata deposited on top is called?
foliated and banded (pr) granite or schist
thin platy, foliated, (pr) mudstone
lithified sand, beach or dune
banded calcite, cave
crystalline calcite, (pr) limestone
rounded pebbles, rivers
broken shell fragmnts,high energy surf zone
Environment: shallow marine
marine fossils in limstone or sandstone
large scale cross bedding and well sorted sand
poorly sorted, non-stratified deposits, U shaped valley
gravel, sand and silt-fining upward sequence- Conglomerate and sandstone
(choices: shear, divergent, transform, compression, convergent, normal,reverse, strike slip, tension)
- 1: Divergent
- 2: Transform
- 3: Compression
- 4: Tension
- 5: Shear
- 7: Normal
- 8: Strike Slip
The process where sediments are turned into sedimentary rocksis called
organisms are _____when they undergo permineralization and replacement
earthquakes that follow the main earthquake are called
____are large seismic generated sea waves that can do major destruction
segments on major faults where there was not been any refent earthquake activity are called seismic____. these areas have a high potential for a major earthquake.
the principle of ____________ states that "the present is the key to the past. it was proposed by ______
- James Hutton
what should u do before, during and after an earthquake?
BEFORE: prepare by stabilazing big objects around the house, prepare emergency kits and come up with a plan
DURING: duk cover and hold
AFTER: call family member outside of the state to check in, localize gas meter and turn it off , aid those with serious wounds
Describe how the epicenter of an earthquake is located. Diagrams may be useful
the epicenter of an earthquake is located by the P waves and S waves. the P wavesis the strongest wave as it hits it creates little waves such as the S waves. Calculating the distance from each wave it helps locate the epicenter. need at least 3 triangular point
based on the videos and lecture comment on the earthwauke risk in each of the following cities a.) los angeles B) san francisco C) fresno. in your discussion discuss which faults near these cities create most of the potential risk for future seismicity?
- A.) Los Angeles: high risk, Elysian Park, blind thrust
- B) San Francisco- High risk, San Andreas fault blind thrust
- C) Fresno : low risk, Hayward fault
The san andreas fault is at potential risk these cities for future seismicity
describe the difference between earthquakes intensity and earthquake magnitude. what does each one measure and on what scare are they measured?
the difference between intesity and earthquake magnitute is that intesity is damaged(mercalli scale) and magnitude is energy (richter scale) realesed. they are measured byt the seismic scale and seismograph.
List and define 5 Geological principles
fossilized fecal material is called
The SanAndreas Fault is an example of a
strike slip fault
- Oceanic- Con
- Ex: Peru-Chile Trench/Andes
- Transform Plate boundaries
- examples: San Andreas Fault
- Oceanic -Oceanic Convergent Plate
- ex: Japan Aleution Island
- Continent Continent
- Ex: India, Asia, Himalayas
- 1:cool and solidify
- 2:Igneous rock
- 3:weathering, Eroision, Transportation, Deposition
- 4: Compaction and cementation
- 5:Sedimentary rock
- 6:Heat and pressure
- 7:Metamorphic Rock
- 9:Heat and pressure
- 10:weathering, Eroision, Transportation, Deposition
- Divergent plate boundaries
- Ex:Mid Alantic ridge
- - alantic ocean
- -Red sea
an atom is?
the smallest unit of matter that retains the characteristic of an element.
ionic bonds occur when electrons?
are transfered between atoms
the most important group of rock formin minerals is the?
the man credited with developing the continental drift hypothesis is
Scientist called tentative explanation or "educated guess" a?
the tendency of a mineral to break along planes of weakness determined by its atomic structure is called?
the atomic mass of an element is equal to....
# of protons = # of neurons
minerals are classified into mineral groups based on
the main difference between oceanic and continetal crust is that continental crust is?
thicker, granitic (felsic) less dense
scientist's estimate that the earth is _____ years old.
which of the following describes the light refelction charachteristic of a mineral
the _____,which consist of thecrust and upper mantle, forms the relatevily cool,brittle plates ofplate tectonics
the resistance of a mineral to scratching or abrasion is called
Evidence of the big bang comes from the fact that light from distance galaxies appear to be___. this phenomena is explained by the Doppler Effect.
the earth's surface is protected from solar wind and cosmic radiation by ...
earth's magnetic field
subduction zones are commonly foundnear
- deep sea trenches
- oceanic-continental plates boundaries
- wadati-benioff zones
the subdivision of the earth's that makes up most volume is the____ which is mainly composed of ____
mantle , peridotite
some early scientist thought that the earth was the cener of the Universe. This view was called a _____ model
the terrestrial planets of rocky planets are
List and describe 5 pieces of evidence that supports the theory of plate tectonics (and/or continental drift) (include some recent evidence)
- 1: acient glacier caps movement
- 2: acient coral reefs found in Africa and Other pats
- 3: fossils of animals who can't swim on other parts of world
- 4: jugsaw Puzzle with the continents that fit into place
- 5: different subduction areas located between Africa and SOuth america. Areas in India were the continent are pushing towards each other
What is a mineral? example
what is a rock? example
- a: is any naturally occurring, inorganic substance, often additionally characterized by an exact crystal structure
- example: Basalt
- b: mixture of naturally occurring substances, mainly minerals
- Example: quartz
Discuss how scientist's think the solar system formed?
scientist believe the solar system was formedby a supernova explosion that occuredin space. Different particles flew everywhere and gases. Seismic disc then formed by thesedifferent particles that formed a ball as it roated.Meteroid would hit the object andit later was compacted and everntually formedthe sun. soeof the excessive particles arre the explosion formed other planents
list 6 rocks and. or minerals and their common uses
- 1: granite:counter tops
- 2: copper: electrical wiring
- 3: diamond : to cut other diamonds and for mirrors
- 4: fluroide: tooth paste
- 5: sulfur: cosmetic or powder
- 6: pumice- rock to rubskin
Briefly define and describe the three major rock groups including which processes are involved in their formation. Give an example of one rock type for each group.
- metamorphic- heat and pressure
- ex: quartz
- sedimintary- compaction and cementary
- ex: conglomerate
- igneous- cool and solidifcation of magma
- ex: obsedian
_____ is molten rock that occurs at the surface
_____ is the earth system that consist of all the water on earth
compaction and cementation is called
_____ was the supercontinent that existed at the end of the Paleozoic and consisted of all the continets together
When oceanic crust is pushed under the continental crust and descends into the mantle, this process is called
the Hawaiian Islands are thought to have formed by volcanism associated with a
Minerals or rocks that contain Iron and Magnesium are saidto be _____in composition
streams enters standing water velocity deacres
Drainage basin (watershed
- land areas that deain into a specific trunk
- stream and divide
- dendritic-branching “tree like” uniform
form a point uplift (mesa,volcano
controlled by jointed rocks
: alternating resistant and weak rocks
- levees,Increase channel volumes, transmit
- intensified flood problems downstream
hold water back from trunk streams
of saturation (phreatic zone),
- formation, water not held as soil moisture percolates downward , water reaches
- zone were all of the open spaces in sediment and rock are completl filled with
of aeration (vadose zone):
- above the water table , includes the capillary fringe and the belt of soil
- moisture, water cannot be pumped by wells
- upper limit of the zone of saturation
) gain water from the inflow of
- groundwater through the streambed
- ) lose water to the groundwater
- system by
- outflow through the streambed
percentage of total volume of
- rock or sediment that consists of
the ability of a material to
transmit a fluid
permeable rock strata or sediment
- that transmits groundwater freely
- (such as
sands and gravels)
an impermeable layer that
- hinders or prevents water movement
• Occur where the water table intersects
• Natural outflow of groundwater
• Can be caused by an aquitard creating a
- localized zone of
(lowering) of the water table
cone of depression in the water table
he upper limit of the zone of
refers to the downslope
movement of rock, regolith, and soil under
the direct influence of gravity
factors for mass wasting-
adds mass and lubricate removing vegitation
- oversteepening slopes: landmass will slump down