Geology

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margs10
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153488
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Geology
Updated:
2012-05-16 23:18:37
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Geology final
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FINAL
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  1. Igneous rocks that formed slow below the surface are called
    Plutonic-itntusive rocks
  2. Mt. Saint Helens, Mt. Pinatubo and other explosive volcanoes have magmas that are ________ in composition.
    Intermediate- felsic
  3. a tabular igneos intrusive body that cuts across other rocks is called a
    dike
  4. small steep sided volcanoes built up of unconsolidated pyroclastic material (tephra) are called
    cinder cones
  5. igneous rocks that formed fast at the surface are called
    volcanic-extrusive rocks
  6. which of the following list contains only fossil fuels?
    coal, oil, natural gas
  7. the hawaiian volcanoes Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea are characterized by gentle slopes compose of numerous basaltic flows. These are examples of..
    Shield volcanoes
  8. intrusive igneous rocks commonly have_____crystals that volcanic igneous rocks.
    larger
  9. Bowen's reaction series is important because it
    • helps explain the mineral assemlages of igneous rocks
    • it helps explain the sequence of crystalization
    • it helps explain how a magma can change composition over time
  10. most og the hydrocarbons within oil and natural gas are derived from the breakdown of organic matter from once living
    plankton
  11. coarse grained diorite is most similar in mineral composition to fine grained
    andesite
  12. aside from the possibility of a meltdown, nuclear power provides no other major problems or concerns
    False
  13. _______ are large intrusive (plutonic) igneous bodies consisting of many plutons.
    batholiths
  14. lava flows with blocky, sharp irregular surfaces are called
    Aa
  15. ancient underwater eriptions can be recognized in the rock record by the presence of
    pillow lavas
  16. the hawaiian island are an example of volcanism cause by a ____
    hot spot
  17. basalts typically form at
    divergent plate boundaries, oceanic hot spots
  18. which of the follwing is a nonrenewable resource?
    coal
  19. ropey lava flows are called_____
    pahoehoe
  20. important volatiles in magmas include
    water and carbon dioxide
  21. Mt. Pinatubo formed in which of the following geologic settings
    oceanic-oceanic convergent plate boundary
  22. the most explosive volcanoes, consisting of alternating layers of pyroclastic flows and solidified lava. that are found landward of subduction zones are called___________
    cinder cones
  23. the greatest hazard to human life associated with volcanoes is___
    pyroclastic flows
  24. Aphanitic
    compsed of small crystals from fast cooling
  25. glassy
    no minerals present because it cooled so fast
  26. porphyritic
    composed of visable crystals from slow cooling
  27. Rock: obsidian
    glassy, felsic compsition
  28. rock : Scoria
    vesicular, mafic composition
  29. Rock: Pumice
    vesicular, felsic composition
  30. Rock: basalt
    aphanitic, mafic composition
  31. Rock GRANITE
    phaneritic, felsic compostion
  32. Bowen's Reaction Series:
    High temp:
    1: olivine 2: Augite 3:hornblende 4: biotite 5: sodic plagioclase 6: orthoclase 7: muscovite 8:quartz 9: plagioclase
  33. _____ are volcanic mudflows that can be very destructive
    lahars
  34. ______ were erupted as blobs of molten lava that cooled into spindle (football) shaped rocks as it fell thtough the air.
    volcanic bombs
  35. _____is molten rock above the ground
    Lava
  36. most explosive volcanoes occur near______ plate boundaries
    convergent
  37. ____flows can travel over 100mph killing everything in their way.
    pyroclastic
  38. when intruding magma melts the country rock (bedrock) and that material is added to the magma, this proceed is called ___
    assimilation
  39. _____ are commonly malleable, ductile and good conductors of electricity and have many applications.
    metals
  40. _____are large depression formed by collapse after a major eruption.
    calderas
  41. coal is the altered remains of ____
  42. ______ mineral resources include talc, gypsum and halite.
    non mettalic
  43. explain each of the factors that determine the natural of volcanic eruption. specifically relate these to the volcanoes eruptive history. (passive vs. Explosive)
    • example: Mt. St. Helen
    • -low temp
    • -explosive
    • -vescocity thick
    • -high pressure strata

    • Hawaii
    • -passive
    • -high temp
    • -fluid
    • - shield
  44. define renewable and nonrenewable resources. Give at least 3 examples of each (excluding water)
    • Renewable: natural remplished over time sustainable long term
    • Ex: solor wind and biomass hydo electric

    • nonrenewable : which cannot be produced, grown, generated, or used on a scale which cansustain its consumption rate takes million of yeas to make
    • EX: coal petroleum, fossil fuel
  45. discuss the early warning signs of volcanic eruption
    • earthquakes
    • tsunami
    • escretion of ash
    • sulfur water
    • gases
    • increase temp
  46. discuss the formation of oil. be sure to include the sources of the hydrocarbons and the temp. ranges
    • diatons are presented along with planquenten and they are heated up between 90
    • and 160 degrees made of ocean setements
  47. record from at least___ seismographs are necessary for determing an earthquake epicenter.
    Three(3)
  48. regional metamorphism is characterized by ____temperatures and ___ pressure
    high, low
  49. the ________ era is characterized by "age of mammals"
    cenozoic
  50. If there is 6.25% of the parent isotope and 93.75% of the daughter isotope presnt in a rock sample and we know the 1/2 life is 10 million years. how old is the rock?
    *40 million years*
  51. the potential for the a large earthquake on a fault segment can be evaluated based on
    • statistical data of post earthquakes
    • seismic gaps


  52. an unconformity where sedimentary rock sits on top of crystalline basement rock (igneous and metamorphic)is called
    nonconformity
  53. _____wer responsible for the Northrige earthquake and the Coalinga earthquake
    blind thrust fault
  54. most of the damage done by earthquakes is cause by these seismic wave
    surface(L & R) waves
  55. the common effect of earthquakes include (the Loma Prieta earthquake illustrated these nicely)
    • ground rupture
    • liquefaction
    • ground shaking
    • landslides
  56. the difference in the arrival times of the P and S waves on a seismogram
    helps geologist determin the distance to the epicenter
  57. seismic waves radiate outward from _____ as energy is realsed during an earthuake
    the hypocenter (focus)
  58. contact metamorphism occurs when
    magma "bakes" the rock intrudes
  59. regional metamorphism affects rocks
    over large areas near convergent plate boundaries
  60. you are walking on the beach and the water starts rapidly receding .. what would be the most reasonable thing for you go?
    head to higher ground because a Tsunami may hit
  61. strike slip Fault
  62. reverse fault
  63. normal fault
  64. the unconformity where uplift strata is eroded with horizontal strata deposited on top is called?
    angular unconformity
  65. Rock :Gneiss
    foliated and banded (pr) granite or schist
  66. Rock: slate
    thin platy, foliated, (pr) mudstone
  67. Rock: Sandstone
    lithified sand, beach or dune
  68. Rock Travertine
    banded calcite, cave
  69. Rock: Marble
    crystalline calcite, (pr) limestone
  70. Rock: conglomerate
    rounded pebbles, rivers
  71. Rock: Coquina
    broken shell fragmnts,high energy surf zone
  72. Environment: shallow marine
    marine fossils in limstone or sandstone
  73. Environment: Dune
    large scale cross bedding and well sorted sand
  74. environemnt: Glacial
    poorly sorted, non-stratified deposits, U shaped valley
  75. Environment: River
    gravel, sand and silt-fining upward sequence- Conglomerate and sandstone
  76. (choices: shear, divergent, transform, compression, convergent, normal,reverse, strike slip, tension)
    • 1: Divergent
    • 2: Transform
    • 3: Compression
    • 4: Tension
    • 5: Shear
    • 6:Reverse
    • 7: Normal
    • 8: Strike Slip
  77. The process where sediments are turned into sedimentary rocksis called
    cementation
  78. organisms are _____when they undergo permineralization and replacement
    petrified
  79. earthquakes that follow the main earthquake are called
    aftershock
  80. ____are large seismic generated sea waves that can do major destruction
    tsumami
  81. segments on major faults where there was not been any refent earthquake activity are called seismic____. these areas have a high potential for a major earthquake.
    gaps
  82. the principle of ____________ states that "the present is the key to the past. it was proposed by ______
    • uniformatarinism
    • James Hutton
  83. what should u do before, during and after an earthquake?
    BEFORE: prepare by stabilazing big objects around the house, prepare emergency kits and come up with a plan

    DURING: duk cover and hold

    AFTER: call family member outside of the state to check in, localize gas meter and turn it off , aid those with serious wounds
  84. Describe how the epicenter of an earthquake is located. Diagrams may be useful
    the epicenter of an earthquake is located by the P waves and S waves. the P wavesis the strongest wave as it hits it creates little waves such as the S waves. Calculating the distance from each wave it helps locate the epicenter. need at least 3 triangular point
  85. based on the videos and lecture comment on the earthwauke risk in each of the following cities a.) los angeles B) san francisco C) fresno. in your discussion discuss which faults near these cities create most of the potential risk for future seismicity?
    • A.) Los Angeles: high risk, Elysian Park, blind thrust
    • B) San Francisco- High risk, San Andreas fault blind thrust
    • C) Fresno : low risk, Hayward fault

    The san andreas fault is at potential risk these cities for future seismicity
  86. describe the difference between earthquakes intensity and earthquake magnitude. what does each one measure and on what scare are they measured?
    the difference between intesity and earthquake magnitute is that intesity is damaged(mercalli scale) and magnitude is energy (richter scale) realesed. they are measured byt the seismic scale and seismograph.
  87. List and define 5 Geological principles
    Superposition:

    Cross cut

    Inclussion

    Latitude contilillity

    Original horizontally
  88. fossilized fecal material is called
    coprolite
  89. The SanAndreas Fault is an example of a
    strike slip fault
    • 1)C
    • 2)L
    • 3)K
    • 4)J
    • 5)I
    • 6)F
    • 7)D
    • 8H
    • 9)B
    • 10)E
    • 11)A
    • 12)G
    • Oceanic- Con
    • Ex: Peru-Chile Trench/Andes
    • Transform Plate boundaries
    • examples: San Andreas Fault
    • Oceanic -Oceanic Convergent Plate
    • ex: Japan Aleution Island
    • Continent Continent
    • Ex: India, Asia, Himalayas
    • 1:cool and solidify
    • 2:Igneous rock
    • 3:weathering, Eroision, Transportation, Deposition
    • 4: Compaction and cementation
    • 5:Sedimentary rock
    • 6:Heat and pressure
    • 7:Metamorphic Rock
    • 8:melt
    • 9:Heat and pressure
    • 10:weathering, Eroision, Transportation, Deposition
    • Divergent plate boundaries
    • Ex:Mid Alantic ridge
    • - alantic ocean
    • -Red sea
  90. an atom is?
    the smallest unit of matter that retains the characteristic of an element.
  91. ionic bonds occur when electrons?
    are transfered between atoms
  92. the most important group of rock formin minerals is the?
    silicates
  93. the man credited with developing the continental drift hypothesis is
    Wegener
  94. Scientist called tentative explanation or "educated guess" a?
    Hypothesis
  95. the tendency of a mineral to break along planes of weakness determined by its atomic structure is called?
    cleavage
  96. the atomic mass of an element is equal to....
    # of protons = # of neurons
  97. minerals are classified into mineral groups based on
    chemical make-ip
  98. the main difference between oceanic and continetal crust is that continental crust is?
    thicker, granitic (felsic) less dense
  99. scientist's estimate that the earth is _____ years old.
    4.5 Billion
  100. which of the following describes the light refelction charachteristic of a mineral
    luster
  101. the _____,which consist of thecrust and upper mantle, forms the relatevily cool,brittle plates ofplate tectonics
    lithiosphere
  102. the resistance of a mineral to scratching or abrasion is called
    hardness
  103. Evidence of the big bang comes from the fact that light from distance galaxies appear to be___. this phenomena is explained by the Doppler Effect.
    red-shifted
  104. the earth's surface is protected from solar wind and cosmic radiation by ...
    earth's magnetic field
  105. subduction zones are commonly foundnear
    • deep sea trenches
    • oceanic-continental plates boundaries
    • wadati-benioff zones
  106. the subdivision of the earth's that makes up most volume is the____ which is mainly composed of ____
    mantle , peridotite
  107. some early scientist thought that the earth was the cener of the Universe. This view was called a _____ model
    Geoncetric
  108. the terrestrial planets of rocky planets are
    • mercury
    • venus,
    • earth
    • mars
  109. List and describe 5 pieces of evidence that supports the theory of plate tectonics (and/or continental drift) (include some recent evidence)
    • 1: acient glacier caps movement
    • 2: acient coral reefs found in Africa and Other pats
    • 3: fossils of animals who can't swim on other parts of world
    • 4: jugsaw Puzzle with the continents that fit into place
    • 5: different subduction areas located between Africa and SOuth america. Areas in India were the continent are pushing towards each other
  110. What is a mineral? example
    what is a rock? example
    • a: is any naturally occurring, inorganic substance, often additionally characterized by an exact crystal structure
    • example: Basalt
    • b: mixture of naturally occurring substances, mainly minerals
    • Example: quartz
  111. Discuss how scientist's think the solar system formed?
    scientist believe the solar system was formedby a supernova explosion that occuredin space. Different particles flew everywhere and gases. Seismic disc then formed by thesedifferent particles that formed a ball as it roated.Meteroid would hit the object andit later was compacted and everntually formedthe sun. soeof the excessive particles arre the explosion formed other planents
  112. list 6 rocks and. or minerals and their common uses
    • 1: granite:counter tops
    • 2: copper: electrical wiring
    • 3: diamond : to cut other diamonds and for mirrors
    • 4: fluroide: tooth paste
    • 5: sulfur: cosmetic or powder
    • 6: pumice- rock to rubskin
  113. Briefly define and describe the three major rock groups including which processes are involved in their formation. Give an example of one rock type for each group.
    • metamorphic- heat and pressure
    • ex: quartz
    • sedimintary- compaction and cementary
    • ex: conglomerate
    • igneous- cool and solidifcation of magma
    • ex: obsedian
  114. _____ is molten rock that occurs at the surface
    Lava
  115. _____ is the earth system that consist of all the water on earth
    Hydrosphere
  116. compaction and cementation is called
    Lithification
  117. _____ was the supercontinent that existed at the end of the Paleozoic and consisted of all the continets together
    Pangea
  118. When oceanic crust is pushed under the continental crust and descends into the mantle, this process is called
    subduction
  119. the Hawaiian Islands are thought to have formed by volcanism associated with a
    hot spot
  120. Minerals or rocks that contain Iron and Magnesium are saidto be _____in composition
    mafic
  121. Deltas
    streams enters standing water velocity deacres
  122. Drainage basin (watershed
    • land areas that deain into a specific trunk
    • stream and divide
  123. Drainage patterns
    • dendritic-branching “tree like” uniform
    • material
  124. Radial
    form a point uplift (mesa,volcano
  125. Rectangular:
    controlled by jointed rocks
  126. Trellis
    : alternating resistant and weak rocks
  127. Engineering efforts
    • levees,Increase channel volumes, transmit
    • intensified flood problems downstream
  128. flood
    control dams:
    hold water back from trunk streams
  129. Zone
    of saturation (phreatic zone),
    • :
    • formation, water not held as soil moisture percolates downward , water reaches
    • zone were all of the open spaces in sediment and rock are completl filled with
    • water
  130. zone
    of aeration (vadose zone):
    • area
    • above the water table , includes the capillary fringe and the belt of soil
    • moisture, water cannot be pumped by wells
  131. Water
    table
    • the
    • upper limit of the zone of saturation
  132. Gaining
    streams (effluent)
    ) gain water from the inflow of

    • groundwater through the streambed
    • (effluent)
  133. Losing
    streams (influent
    • ) lose water to the groundwater
    • system by

    • outflow through the streambed
    • (influent
  134. Recharge
    • Leaky
    • Acres
  135. Porosity
    percentage of total volume of

    • rock or sediment that consists of
    • pore

    space
  136. Permeability
    the ability of a material to

    transmit a fluid
  137. Aquifer
    permeable rock strata or sediment

    • that transmits groundwater freely
    • (such as

    sands and gravels)
  138. Aquitard
    an impermeable layer that

    • hinders or prevents water movement
    • (such

    as clay)
  139. Movement
    of groundwater
    • very
    • slow
  140. Springs :
    • Occur where the water table intersects

    Earth’s surface

    • Natural outflow of groundwater
  141. Perched
    water:
    • Can be caused by an aquitard creating a

    • localized zone of
    • saturation
  142. Drawdown
    (lowering) of the water table

    cone of depression in the water table
  143. Water
    table aquifer
    he upper limit of the zone of

    saturation
  144. Confined
    aquifer:
    • artesian
    • wells
  145. Problems-
    Subsidence
  146. mass
    wasting
    refers to the downslope

    movement of rock, regolith, and soil under

    the direct influence of gravity
  147. Controlling
    factors for mass wasting-
    adds mass and lubricate removing vegitation

    • ,
    • oversteepening slopes: landmass will slump down

    • ,
    • removal of vegetation:

    • ,
    • earthquakes:

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