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  1. What is another alternative name for innates immunity/?
    Nonspecific immunity
  2. What is the meaning of innate immunity?
    It means you are born with it, is nonspecific and it protects you from microorganisms
  3. What is the first line of defense?
    The skin protects from bacterial invasions
  4. What are the cells called on the epidermis and what are they used for?
    The cells are called keratin they function as a waterproof protection barrier they are located on the skin and nails
  5. What is another type of first defense?
    Mucous membranes these secrete mucus/normal flora and trap bacteria and expel out of the body.
  6. What is the ciliary Escalade and where is it located?
    They are small ciliary membranes that trap bacteria and expel it out of the respiratory tract they are located in the lower portion respiratory tract
  7. Is there normal flora in the lower respiratory track?
    No the lower respiratory tract should be sterile there is normal floor in that upper respiratory tract.
  8. What happens if you find Flora in lower respiratory tract?
    Could it be a respiratory infection and cause pneumonia
  9. What does resistance mean?
    The ability to ward off diseases
  10. What does susceptibility mean?
    Lack of resistance to a disease
  11. What is the meaning of adaptive immunity?
    Gives you immunity to a specific disease or pathogen it means you are not born with it you acquire it
  12. Is innate immunity specific or nonspecific?
  13. What are the major defense cells in innate immunity?
    Macrophages and dendritic cells
  14. Is adaptive immunity nonspecific or specific community
    Specific immunity
  15. What are the major defense cells and adaptive immunity?
    T cells and B. cells
  16. What is the relevance of adaptive immunity?
    It protects against a specific pathogen by using antibodies and special cells of the immune system. It is slower to respond and has memory
  17. What is the relevance of innate immunity?
    It defends and protects the body against any kind of pathogen is present at birth response rapidly and has no memory
  18. Name three innate physical factors of the first line of defense?
    Intact skin, mucous membranes, ciliary escalator
  19. Another innate physical factor are lacrimal gland why is this?
    They produce tears that wash away debris which then drain down to the lacrimal canal to the nose
  20. During vaginal and saliva secretions are also physical factors why is this?
    They expel or wash away microorganisms from the body
  21. What are five chemical innate factors?
    Lysosome in sweat, tears, saliva, mucus, nasal secretion
  22. What is the chemical innate factor in skin?
    Sebum it produces a low pH and a high concentration of salt to inhibit growth on skin to make it a more acidic environment
  23. What is the chemical innate factor in tears and saliva?
    Lysosome it breaks down peptidoglycan in cell walls it is a nonspecific defense system
  24. What is the innate defense chemical factor of the first part of the stomach and small intestine?
    The stomach is very acidic contains gastric juices and has no normal flora
  25. What are transferrins?
    They are anti-microbial chemicals in blood that bind iron and inhibit bacterial growths
  26. What is the relevance of normal flora?
    To assist in preventing overgrowth of pathogens
  27. What is the definition of phagocytosis?
    A nonspecific process by which a cell known as a phagocyte engulfs an invading microorganism
  28. Name two types of phagocytes?
    Macrophage and neutrophils
  29. What is another name for neutrophil?
    Polymorphicnuclear leukocyte or PMN
  30. What is the definition of a neutrophil?
    It is a granulocyte, it is phagocitic and it is a white blood cell.
  31. What are platelets and where do they arise from?
    Platelets arise from megakaryotes and are fragments of leukocyts and are important in clotting.
  32. What are the formed elements in blood?
    WBC RBC and platelets
  33. What is the relevance of a white blood cell?
    To help fight off infection
  34. What are red blood cells and what is their function?
    Red blood cells are erythrocytes that transport oxygen and carbon dioxide.
  35. What are white blood cells?
    They are leukocytes that contribute to the bodies specific and nonspecific defenses
  36. What is a macrophage and where do they originate from?
    Macrophage is a part of the first line of defense that are derived from monocytes in the blood they are found in lungs, prayers patches. They will not be found floating in blood.
  37. Name the three granulocytes and wher are they found?
    Neutrophils basophils and eosinophils and are found in cytoplasma.
  38. What are two kinds of phagocytic cells?
    Eosinaphils and monocytes
  39. What are Agranulocytes?
    They are monocytes, dendrites lymphocytes They enter the body tissue from the cytoplasma and mature into macrophages.
  40. Lymphocytes and lymph tissue that contribute to adaptive immunity?
    b cells, T cells and Nk cells.
  41. What is the relevance of the B. cell
    They mature into plasma cells which produce antibodies in humoral immunity.
  42. What is the relevance of a T-cell?
    They function in cellular immunity they arise from the thymus
  43. What is the relevance of NK cells?
    The non-specifically destroyed targeted cells
  44. What is the percentage breakdown of the blood cellular defense?
    60% plasma and 40% formed elements
  45. Were are do monocytes congregate ?
    They congregate in the blood
  46. What are eosinophils?
    They are white blood cells that increase when your body is fighting off allergic or parasitic infections.
  47. What are basophils?
    They are white blood cells that are importing in inflammatory response they release histones which release histamine which cause cells to release liquid causing swelling
  48. What are dendrite cells?
    Dendrite excels are phagocytes and act as antigen (AG)presenting cells they are important in adaptive immunity they are derived from monocytes.
  49. What are stem cells , where do they come from and what cells arise from them?
    Stem cells are undifferentiated immature cells they come from bone marrow they differentiate into mature cells such as platelets, RBC and WBC. They also have a role in adaptive immunity by helping T. and B. lymphocytes function they also play a role in inflammation
  50. What are the five steps of phagocytosis?
    Chemotaxis(which is attraction to microbes by chemical release) adherence(receptors on bad the site adhere or attached to microbes) indigestion(pseudopod's engulf microbes and form phagosome) digestion(formation of phagolysosome and release of lysosomal enzymes) digest(then spits out)
  51. What is the complement system and how does it work?
    It consists of a group of serum proteins that activate one another to destroy invading microbes complement proteins are activated in a cascade they are nonspecific because some proteins activate in response to any foreign cell. Initiation may require antibodies or maybe trigger directly by bacteria viruses and fungi it results in cytolysis, inflammation and opsonisation.
  52. What is opsonisation?
    Coatig microbes antigens to promote phagocytosis
  53. What are the characteristics to inflammation and what are the steps in the process of inflammation?
    Redness heat swelling and pain in response to tissue damage or injury. The steps of process are a)vasodilation which increases permeability of blood vessels which cause the release of histamine kinins and prostaglandind. b) phagocyte migration and phagocytosis. C) tissue repair
  54. What is the relevance of inflammation?
    Inflammation allows the body to heal itself. Tissue damage causes vasodilation of blood vessels chemicals such as histamine and prostagland cause permeability in blood vessels when there is tissue damage it is beneficial because it brings more blood to the area which brings more oxygen in platelets for tissue regeneration.Chronic inflammation is not good
  55. What's the relevance of a fever?
    Low-grade fevers are beneficial because it inhibits growth of micros is it often accompanies an immune response
  56. What is the relevance of chronic inflammation?
    The presence of pus which are dead and materials that have been digested, an abscess which is an accumulation of pus in a cavity that causes a pimples or boil. A granuloma which is a collection of dead tissue,WBC and debris.
  57. What is the significance of interferon?
    It is produced non specifically by certain WBC's and tissue cells after they are infected by a virus. It is produced naturally by damaged tissue and cells. Interferon protects you from viral diseases by inhibiting viral multiplication in uninfected cells it has no effect on viral multiplication in cells already infected. Interferon keeps other cells from becoming infected.
  58. What are the three types of interferon?
    Alpha, Beta and Gamma
  59. What increases in macrophages and neutrophils?
    Gamma interferon
  60. Will host cells that are infected produce interferon?
  61. What activates complement?
    It's activated by approximately 30 types of proteins
  62. What is the main characteristic of complement?
    It enhances phagocytos it can lyse bacteria directly and can enhance bodies in human system
  63. What are the steps and complement?
    First component C3 gets broken down by response from bacteria microbes divided into C-3A and C 3B. C3B will trigger phagocytosis and 3A will further cascade down to C5,C6,C7, C8,C9 which will enhance the fact of the cascade and result in cytosis of cells. It will target the bacteria that set the complement in order.
  64. What is the function of cytotoxic T. lymphocytes a.k.a. CTL cells?
    CTL attaches to a target cell and releases perforin which contributes to its sudden death of a cell by poking holes in its membrane.
  65. Which one circulates in tissue macrophage or monocytes?
  66. Which one is correct or monocytes are derived from macrophage or macrphages are derived from monocytes?
    macrphages are derived from monocytes. Monocytes mature into macrophages.
  67. What is an antigen?
    A foreign substance to which the body mounts an immune response example is a Hampton it is not antigenic unless it attaches to a carrier molecule such as Penicillin
  68. What is the relevance of an antigen?
    It responds to anything the body recognizes as foreign and produces an immune response examples molds, dust and mites.
  69. Two main components of the duality of the immune system?
    Humor immune system and cell mediated immunity system
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test 4
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