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What is due process model?
View that focuses on protecting the civil rights of those accused of crime.
What are crime control models?
Emphasizes the control of dangerous offenders and the protection of society. Calls for harsh punishments, such as the death penalty as a deterrent to crime.
What was the contribution of Beccaria?
The development of rational classical criminolgy. People must be motivated by the fear of punishment, which provides a tangible motive for them to obey the law and suppress the despotic spirit the resides in every person.
What was the contribution of Sutherland and Cressey?
- Important areas of criminology.
- Crime as a social phenomenon, processes of making laws, breaking laws and the reating toward the breaking of laws, development of a body of general and verified principles. The importance of the use of the scientific method.
What was the contribution of Gall?
Founder of positivist theory. some people have biological and mental traits that make them crime prone. Traits are inherited and present at birth.
What was the contribution of Marx?
Identified the economic structures in society that control all human relations. Roots of critical criminology.
What was the contribution of Darwin?
Evolutionary theory. people whose personal characteristics enable them to accumulate more than others are the most likely to breed and dominate the species.
What was the contribution of Lombroso?
Wrote the book The Female Offender, argued that a small group of female criminals lacked "typical" female traits of piety, maternity, undeveloped intelligence and weakness. "masculinity hypothesis"
What was the contribution of the Chicago School?
pioneered research on the social ecology of the city. Inspired a generation of scholars to conclude that social forces operating in urban areas create natural areas for crime.
What was the contribution of Shaw and McKay?
Discovered important elements of crime: crime rates are sensitive to the destructive social forces operating in lower-class urban neighborhoods, environmental factors, rather than individual differences, are the root cause of crime. crime is a constant fixture in poverty areas regardless of racial or ethnic makeup, neighborhood disintegration and the corresponding erosion of social control are the primary causes of criminal behavior, community values, norms, and cohesiveness affect indivdual behavior choices.
What was the contribution of Durkheim?
Considered one of the founders of sociology, defined crime as a normal and necessary social event.
What was the contribution of Merton?
Found two elements of culture interact to produce potentially anomic conditions, culturally defined goals and socially approved means for obtaining them. Anomie theory
What was the contribution of James Q Wilson?
Debunked the view that crime was a function of external forces. We must react forcefully to crime, those sitting on the fence will get a clear message, crime pays. Contemporary choice theory
What was the contribution of Cloward and Ohlin?
Theory of differential opportunity. Inner city kids as individuals who want to conform to middle class values but lack the means to do so.
What was the contribution of Cohen?
Theory of delinquent subcultures. Delinquent behavior of lower class youths is actually a protest against the norms and values of middle class culture. Status frustration.
What was the contribution of Matza?
Neutralization theory. Process of becoming a criminal as a learning experience in which potential delinquents and criminals master techniques that enable them to counterbalance or neutralize conventional values and drift back and forth between illegitimate and conventional behavior.
What are the key events of crimnology history?
What the main tenets of Classical criminology?
In every society, people have free will to choose criminal or lawful solutions to meet their needs or settle their problems, criminal solutions can be very attractive because for little effort they hold the promise of a huge payoff. A person will choose not to commit crime only if he/she believes that the pain of expected punishment is greater than the promise of reward, in order to be an effective crime deterrent, punishment must be severe, certain and swift enough to convince potential criminals that crime does not pay.
How do criminologist view crimes?
consensus view of crime, crimes are behaviors believed to be repugnant to all elements of society. Social harm, behaviors that are harmful to toher people and society in general must be controlled. Conflict view, society is a collection of diverse groups trying to assert political power and advance their economic and social positions.interactivvionist view, people act according to their own interpretations of reality through which they assign meaning to things
is the idea that the sizes of brain areas were meaningful and could be inferred by examining the skull of an individual.
the assessment of a person's character or personality from his outer appearance, especially the face
A system developed for categorizing people on the basis of their body build.
what is the difference between deviant behavior and criminal behavior?
- Deviant behavior departs from th esocial norm.
- Criminal behavior is behavior that is illegal
- crimes are not usually deviant, and deviant acts are neither illegal or criminal.
What is the difference between criminology and criminal justice?
- Criminology is an academic disipline that uses the scientific method to study the nature, extent, cause and control of criminal behavior.
- Criminal justice refers to the study of the agencies of social control
What is the difference between felonies and misdemeanors?
- A felony is a serious offense that carries a penalty of imprisionment and may entail a los of political rights.
- A misdemeanor is a minor crime usually punished by a short jail term and/or a fine.
What is the difference between means rea and actus reus?
- The mens rea (literally Latin for 'guilty mind') is the element of a crime that only allows punishment for actions that we voluntarily take.
- The actus reus (literally Latin for 'guilty act') is the behavior that the criminal law intends to punish
What is the difference between Part I crimes and Part II crimes?
- PART I CRIMES are also referred to as “Index Crimes.” These are the eight crimes of: Homicide, Rape, Robbery, Aggravated Assault, Burglary, Larceny/Theft Motor, Vehicle Theft, Arson
- The Part II Offenses are: Simple Assaults, Forgery and Counterfeiting, Fraud, Embezzlement, Stolen Property Offenses, Vandalism, Weapons Offenses, Prostitution, Sex Offenses, Drug Abuse Violations, Gambling, Offenses Against the Family and Children, Driving Under the Influence, Liquor Laws, Drunkenness, Disorderly Conduct, Vagrancy, All Other Offenses
What are the various crime data collecting methods and what are the problems with each?
- Uniform Crime Report- does not take into account unreported crimes
- National Incident Based Reporting System-not all state are reporting their NIBRS
- National Crime Victimization Survey victims musinterpretaion of events, under reporting because of embarrassment, fear or forgeting.
- Self-report surveys-exagerate criminal acts, forget them, or be confused about what is being asced.
What is the differce betwen bourgeoisie and proletariat?
- The bourgeoisie is also the dominant class within capitalist society
- proletariat refers to the class of individuals who sell their labor in exchange for a wage
What is the difference between atavistic anomalies and biosocial theories?
- Atavistic anomalies- born criminals who had inherited a set of primitive physical traits.
- Biosocial theories -physical, environmental and social conditions work in concert to produce human behavior.
That is the difference between cornor boy and college boy?
- Corner boy is well aware of his failure to achieve the standards of the American dream, retreats into the comforting world of his lower class peers and eventually becomes a stable member of his neighborhood.
- College boy is one who is embarking on an almost hopless path, since he is ill equipped academically, socially and linguistically to achieve the rewards of middle class.
What is the difference between strain and anomie?
- anomie-rules of behavior have brooken down or become inoperative during periods of rapid social change or social crisis.
- Strain-criminal motivation.
What is the difference between instrumental crimes and expressive crimes?
- Insrumental crimes are to gain some type of future goal
- expresive crimes are done on enotion
What is the difference between general deterrence and specific deterrence?
- General deterrence- not only the actual chance of punishment influence criminality but the preception of punishment.
- Specific deterrence- Criminal sancitons should be so powerful that known criminals will never repeat their criminal acts.
What are the major perspectives of crimniology?
what are the theories of victimization?
- Victim precipitation theory
- Deviant place theory
- Routine activities theory
What is the insanity defense?
the defendant claims that he or she was not responsible for his or her actions due to mental health problems
What is the M'Naghten rule?
A test applied to determine whether a person accused of a crime was sane at the time of its commission and, therefore, criminally responsible for the wrongdoing.
What is the Durham rule?
A principle of Criminal Law used to determine the validity of the Insanity Defense asserted by an accused, that he or she was insane at the time of committing a crime and therefore should not be held legally responsible for the action.
What is the substantial capacity test?
a test used in many jurisdictions when considering an insanity defense which relieves a defendant of criminal responsibility if at the time of the crime as a result of mental disease or defect the defendant lacked the capacity to appreciate the wrongfulness of his or her conduct or to conform the conduct to the requirements of the law
What is the theory of social stratification?
Social stratification refers to the hierarchical arrangement of social classes within a given society. This stratification produces societal inequality
What is the theory of social ecology?
It holds that present ecological problems are rooted in deep-seated social problems, particularly in dominatory hierarchical political and social systems.
What is the theory of social disorganization?
Social disorganization theory: linking (directly) low crime rates to neighborhood ecological characteristics, youths from disadvantaged neighborhoods were participants in a subculture in which delinquency was approved behavior and that criminality was acquired in social and cultural settings through a process of interaction.
What is the theory of cultural deviance?
crime is conceptualized as the result of class conflict. The theory suggests that the lower class has its own set of goals and values and that these differ from those of other social groups.
What is conduct norms?
Rules governing the day-to-day living conditions within these subcultures.
What is parental efficacy?
Antisocial behavior will be reduced if parents provide the type of structure that interates children into families while giving them the ability to asser their individuality.
What is collective efficacy?
Mutal trust, a willingness to intervene in the supervision of children and the maintenance of public order.
What is GST?
General strain theory-Strain causes crime in the absence of adequate coping mechanisms.
What is differential opportunity?
Combination strain and social disorganization principles
What are choice theories?
What and the crime control strategies of choice theories?
What types of crimes are most likely to be solved?
What are dark figures of crime?
A term employed by criminologists and sociologists to describe the amount of unreported or undiscovered crime, which calls into question the reliability of official crime statistics.
What techniques of neutralization?
- Deny responsibility
- Deny injury
- Deny the victim
- Condemn conemners
- Appeal to higher loyalties.
What is the Trait theory?
Criminals have pysical or mental traits that make them different. Lombroso
What is the arousal theory?
For a variety of genetic and environmental reasons, some people's brains function differently in response to environmental stimuli.
What is age-graded theory?
assumes that the causal relationship between early delinquent offending and later adult deviant behavior is not solely a product of individual characteristics; social events may change some individuals while others continue to offend.
What is life course theory?
The life course approach examines an individual's life history and sees for example how early events influence future decisions and events such as marriage and divorce, engagement in crime, or disease incidence
What is developmental theory?
Crime causation is a developmental process that starts before birth and continues throughout the life course. Individual factors interact with social factors to determine the onset, length, and end of criminal careers
What is labeling theory?
People enter into law violating careers when they are labeled for their act and organize their personalities around the lables
What is feminist theory?
Patriarchy is a broad structure that shapes gender-related experiences and power. Men may use crime to exert control over women and to demonstrate masculinity
What is the conflict view of crime?
crime is controlled by wealth, power, and position and not by moral consensus or the fear of social disruption
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