bio study

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bio study
2012-05-12 09:58:03
bio study

bio styd
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  1. Haploid, multicelled individual produces gametes via mitosis.
  2. Diploid, multicelled individual from gamete fusion(zygote); produce haploid spores via meiosis for dispersal; spores erminate via mitosis to product gametophytes.
  3. Gametophyte and sporophyte individuals are morphologically indistinguishable
  4. Gametophyte and sporophyte individuals are morphologically distinct.
  5. AOG: Gametophyte does what?
    • 2 haploid cells: antheridium & Archegonium
    • syngamy
    • diploid zygot->embryo
    • Sporophyte, diploid
  6. AOG: Sporophyte does what?
    • Sporangia->diploid spore mother cell
    • Meiosis
    • ->Spores->gametophyte
  7. Gametes are equally motile and similar size
  8. one gamete is large and less motile, w/nutrient reserves, while the other is smaller and more motile
  9. One gamete is non-motile and large, with large nutrient reserves(egg), while the other is smaller and motile(sperm) and must locate the larger gamete
  10. Seeds, vascular
    • Angiosperms
    • Gymnosperms
  11. Seedless, vascular
    • Ferns
    • Horsetails
    • Club Mosses
    • Whisk Ferns
  12. Nonvascular
    • Mosses
    • Liverworts
    • Hornworts
  13. heptophyta
  14. Spores are released from a spore chamber
  15. mature gametophyte
  16. What plants AOG is sporophyte dependent on gametophyte?
  17. What plants AOG has a large sporophyte and small, independent gametophyte?
  18. What plants AOG has a reduced gametophyte dependent on sporophytes?
    Seed plants
  19. Stigma
  20. anther
  21. ripened ovary
  22. grasses, corn, sugar cane, palm trees, lilies and orchids
  23. most trees, vines, shrubs and cacti
  24. slow-growing
    do not produce flowers
    ovules/seeds exposed
  25. ephedra
    cells resemble sylem vessel cells of angiosperms
    cone clusters resemble flowers
  26. only one living member
    do not produce flowers
    ovules/seeds exposed
  27. oldest, tallest, most massive plants
    leaves form needles
  28. ovulate cone=megastrobilus with megasporophylls
    pollen cone = microstrobilus with microsporophylls
    pollination to fertilization can take over a year
  29. megastrobilus w/megasporophylls(scales)
    ovulate cone
  30. where pollen lands on ovulate cone
  31. microstrobilus w/microsporphylls
    Pollen cone
  32. Monocots vs. dicots: Floral parts
    • Monocots: X3
    • Dicots: X4 or 5
  33. Monocots vs. dicots: leaves
    • Monocotes: long tapering blades with parallel ventation
    • Dicots: broad to narrow leaves with netted venation
  34. Monocots vs. dicots: stems
    • Monocots: vascular bundles are scattered
    • Dicots: vascular bundles arranged in a circle
  35. Monocots vs. dicots: seeds
    • Monocots: contain 1 cotyledon
    • Dicots: Contain 2 cotyledons
  36. collection and conversion of solar energy
  37. positioning and support of leaves
  38. anchorage and absorption
  39. transport
    vascular system
  40. with was to resist desiccation
    produced by epidermis
    leaf cuticle
  41. with stomata to regulate gas exchange
    leaf guard cells
  42. photosynthetic layer
    leaf mesophyll
  43. mesophyll types for dicots
    leaf palisade and spongy
  44. vascular bundle for transport of materials
    leaf vein
  45. for support and growth toward sunlight
    stem cellulose-based cell walls
  46. dicots: separated by ring of vascular bundles
    stem cortex and pith
  47. monocots: scattered vascular bundles
    stem ground tissue
  48. has root hairs for increased absorption area for water/minterals
    root epidermis
  49. with casparian wax strips
    root endodermis
  50. central cylinder with vascular tissues inside
    root stele
  51. used for water/mineral transport
  52. thin, hollow, dead cells with perforated, tapered ends
  53. used for sugar/food transport
  54. hollow, living cells with perforated ends
    sieve tube members
  55. living cells that help keep sieve tube member cells alive
    companion cells
  56. what grows upward upward
    epicotyl or coleoptile
  57. plant growth and movement in response to light
  58. What grows downward
    radicle or hypocotyl
  59. plant growth and movement in response in light
  60. What formss all tissues of adult plant?
    meristematic tissues
  61. responsible for increase inplant height
    apical meristem
  62. responsible for increase in plant diameter
    lateral meristem
  63. Three primary meristems:
    protoderm, ground meristem, procambium
  64. produeces xylem inward and phloem outward
    vascular cabium
  65. newer xylem, free flowing water transport
  66. clogged xylem, little water transport
  67. produced from phloem, cork cambium, cork
  68. cracks in the bark to facilitate gas exchange
  69. stomata, roots, lenticels
    gas exchange
  70. fluids move in xylem via
    adhesion, cohesion, evaporation and osmosis
  71. some water moves up small vascular cells naturally
    capillary action
  72. solutes inside the root tissues draw some water up
    root pressure
  73. the main motive force for transporting water up to the top of a plant
    • transpiration pull
    • cohesion-adhesion-tension
  74. getting the sugars into the cells of the phloem requires energy
    active transport
  75. large quantities of sugars/starch are stored in special vegetative structures
  76. what is life?
    • metabolism
    • reproduction
    • growth
    • movement
    • responsiveness
    • complex organization
  77. composed of fluid-like phospholipid bilayer, proteins, cholesterol and glycoproteins
    cell (plasma) membrane
  78. outside of cell membrane in some organisms(cellulose, chitin) or carbohydrate derivative(peptidoglycan)
    cell wall
  79. solutions with dissolved substances such as glucose, CO2, O2, etc
  80. membrane-bound subunits of cells with specialized functions
  81. suportive and metabolic structure compose of microtubules, microfilament, and intermediate filaments
  82. simpler cellular organization with no nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles
    prokaryotic cells
  83. DNA/chromosomes, control cellular activities via genes
  84. located with nuclues, site for ribosome synthesis
  85. with ribosomes, involved in protein synthesis
    rough endoplasmic reticulum
  86. without ribosomes, involved primarily in lipid synthesis
    smooth endoplamsic reticulum
  87. packaging center for molecules; carbohydrate synthesis
    golgi apparatus
  88. contains hydrolytic enzymes for intracellular digestion
  89. involved in hydrogen peroxide synthesis and degradation
  90. site of photosynthesis
  91. non-green pigments
  92. stores starch
  93. ATP production
  94. general storage and space-filling structure
  95. series of chemical rxns involved in anabolism or catabolism
  96. storing energy
  97. releasing energy
  98. biological catalyst; facilitate metabolic chemical rxns by speeding up rates and lowering heat requirements
  99. a high -energy molecule; energy is released by breaking phosphate-to-phosphate bonds
    Adenosine Triphosphate
  100. ADP
    adenosine monophosphate
  101. sunlight or raiant energy is captured by chlorophyll and carotenoid photopigments in two main steps
  102. the caputred light energy is transferred to electrons that come from H2O; O2 is a by-product
    light-dependent rxns
  103. Energized electrons are transferred to CO2 to form glucose
    light-independent rxns
  104. highly energized electrons stored temporarily in glucose are removed in a step-wise fashion to maximize energy cature at each step
    cell respiration
  105. anaerobic process in cytoplasm in which flucose, a 6-carbon compound, is oxidized to two pyruvates, which are both three-carbon chains
  106. aerobic process that oxidizes pryuvates to CO2
    Krebs cycle
  107. Energized electrons released during the other rxns are used to concentrate hydrogen ions in one area to create a chemical gradient btwn + and - charged ions; the potential energy resulting is used to resynthesize ATP
    chemiosmotic phophorylation
  108. relies on thermal energy of matter; the cell does not do work; there are 4 catetories
    • Passive transport
    • * diffusion
    • * facilitated diffusion
    • * osmosis
    • *bulk flow
  109. movement from an area of high to low concentration
  110. a permease, or membrane enzyme, carries substance
    failitated diffusion
  111. diffusion across a semi-permeable membrane
  112. mas movements of fluids affted by pressure and solutes
    bulk flow
  113. relies on the cell providing energy supply; there are 3 categories:
    • active transport
    • *membrane pumps
    • *endocytosis
    • *exocytosis
  114. permease used to move substance, usually in the opposite direction of diffusion
  115. material are brought into cell
  116. 2 types of endocytosis
    • phagocytosis
    • pinocytosis
  117. expel materials from cell
  118. division of nuclear material
  119. 2 steps for cell reproducing
    • mitosis
    • cytokinesis
  120. division of remaining cellular contents of the cytoplasm
  121. the 4 steps in cell cycle
    • G1
    • S
    • G2
    • mitosis & Cytokinesis
  122. active growth and metabolism in the cell cycle
  123. DNA synthesis and duplication in the cell cycle
  124. Synthesis of molecules in preparation for ell division
  125. mitotic chromosomes in the mitosis/cytokinesis stage are highly condensed and coiled
    mitosis & cytokinesis
  126. the 4 mitotic stages
    • prophase
    • metaphase
    • anaphase
    • telophase
  127. chromosomes condense and organize; nuclear membrance and nucleoli disappear; spindle apparatus assembled and attached to centromeres of duplicated chromosomes
  128. spindles line up duplicated chromosomes along equator of ell, one spindle to each half or chromatid of duplicated chromosome
  129. centromere of each duplicated chromosome is separated and paired chromatids are pulled apart
  130. chromosomes uncoil; nucleoli reappear; cytokinesis occurs and two genetically identical daughter cells are produced
  131. involves the fusion of genetic material (gametes) from two parental organisms
    sexual reproduction
  132. reduces the chromosome number by half and results in new genetic combinations inthe gametes
  133. the 2 stages of meiosis
    • meiosis I
    • Meiosis II
  134. preceded by Interphase; many meiotic events similar to mitosis;
  135. chromosomes condense and organize and matched or homologous chromosomes are physically paired; segments of chromatids can cross over within each chromosome pair
    prophase I
  136. one maternal and one paternal chomosomes in each pair
    homolgous chromosomes
  137. homologues line up at equator
    metaphase I
  138. homologues separated into 2 groups, with each group having a mixture of maternal and paternal chromosomes
    anaphase I
  139. new haploid nuclei forming for two new daughter cells
    telphase I
  140. no replication of DNA occurs because each chromosome is still duplicated and consists of two chromatids
  141. chromosomes condense
    prophase II
  142. chromosomes line up at equator
    metaphase II
  143. chromatids of each chromosome are seperated
    anaphase II
  144. each daughter cell from meiosis I will form two more cells for a total of four cell
    telophase II
  145. the study of traits and their inhertiance
  146. one allele dominates another allele
    complete dominance
  147. neither allele is expressed fully
    incomplete dominance
  148. both alleles are expressed fully
  149. more than two alleles for a genen are found within a population
    multiple alleles
  150. one gene alters the affect of another gene
  151. many genes contribute to a phenotype
    polygenic inheritance
  152. one gene can effect several phenotypes
  153. where the genotype and environment interact to form a phenotype
    environmental influences
  154. to be preserved and transmitted
    to control various biological functions through the production of proteins and RNA
    gene functions
  155. the two types of nucleic acid
    • DNA
    • RNA
  156. the components of nucleic acids; three subunits
  157. RNA nitrogenous bases
    U C G A
  158. DNA nitrogenous base
    A G C T
  159. DNA is copied from other DNA by unzipping the helix and pairing new nucleotides with the proper bases on eahc separated side of the original DNA
  160. copied from DNA by unzipping a portion of the DNA heliz that corrsponds to a gene
    messenger MRNA
  161. leaves the nucleus to be trascribed by the ribosomes
    mature mRNA
  162. any random, permanent hange in the DNA molecule; many are harmful, some have no effect, and a few actually benefi the organism; nature selects those mutations that are beneficial or adaptive in organisms to help shape the course of evolution
  163. genetic composition of an individual
  164. genetic composition of a population of individuals; that is, all alleles for all genes in a population
  165. genetic composition of a population of individiuals, that is, all alleles for all genes in a population
    gene pool