Which 3 organs in the digestion system are responsible for storing or producing chemicals that break down our food?
Pancreas, gall bladder, liver
Chemical Digestion –
chemical reactions break down large molecules of food
Mechanical Digestion –
food is chewed, mixed, and turned
What is chyme?
The pulpy acidic fluid that passes from the stomach to the small intestine, consisting of gastric juices and partly digested food.
Where does chemical and mechanical digestion begin?
Chewing and mixing of food take place in the mouth and stomach. This is a form of
What is the main function of the digestion system?
Breaks down molecules to be absorbed and moved into the blood
What body system is responsible for sending adrenaline throughout the body in a fight or flight emergency situation?
Which systems' function is to continue life on Earth?
Which system includes the brain, spinal cord, and the nerves?
The nervous system plays the most important role in
control of the body
What is the main function of the excretory system?
Removes waste through urine
What are the 4 organ systems that work together as part of the excretory system?
Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
If there is too much water in the blood, a hormone is released to signal the kidneys to return less water to the blood and increase the amount of wastewater called
a filtration system made up of nephrons that help purify blood, in order for it to be returned to the circulatory system
Control systems of the body
Nervous and Endocrine System
2 examples of chemical energy
food and Fossil Fuels (Charcoal)
2 Examples of Thermal energy
heat from body, fire
2 Examples of kinetic energy
2 examples of light energy
2 examples of sound energy
2 examples of radiant energy
comes from the sun
We get most of our energy from the ______ in comes in the form of________.
sun, radiant energy.
Describe the process of photosynthesis. (Where, What, How)
Where: Occurs in the chloroplast of the plant cell
What: Radiant energy + CO2 + H2O Chemical energy (Glucose)
How: Sun shines, chloroplast changes sunlight into stored energy (food)
What type of energy do we get from food?
push or pull
force over a given distance work = force x distance
Define Chemical Change-
-Change in which a new substance is formed
Define Physical Change-
change in which no new substance is formed
Function of Esophugus-
Takes food from mouth to stomach
Function of kidneys-
filters waste out of blood stream
Function of Small intestine-
where vitamins/ food get out of the digestive system into circulatory system
Function of Alveoli-
Small sacs through which carbon dioxide and oxygen are exchanged
Function and Structure of the nervous system:
Function- Responding to changes in the environment
Structures- brain, spinal cord, neurons
Function and structure of the muscualr system
Function- provide force to move body
Function and structure of the endocrine system
Function- to coordinate and regulate the body systemsStructures- glands
Function and structure of the skelatal system
Function- shape and support, protect internal organs, attach to major muscles, form blood cells, store calcium and phosphorusStructures- bones
Function and structure of the respitory system
Function- provides oxygen and excretes carbon dioxide
Structure- nose, trachea, bronchi, lungs, alveoli
Function and structure of the circulatory system
Function- Moves materials around the body
Structures-heart, veins, arteries
Function and structure of the integumentatry system
Function- Protects organs, keeps in water, excretes waste, helps provide vitamin D
Structures- Skin, hair, nails
Function and structure of the digestive system
Function- breaks down food for cells
Structures- mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines
Function and structure of the excretory system
Function- gets rid of waste
Structures- kidneys, bladder, ureters, urethra
Function and structure of the reproductive system
Function- Creates new organism
Structures- female: ovaries, fallopian tubes, and uterus
Male: testes, urethra
Name the outside layer of the skin.
List the five senses.
Sight, sound, smell, touch, taste
Each of your five senses give you the ability to perceive certain stimuli. For instance, hearing is your ability to perceive or pick up_______energy. Eyes pick up________energy. Taste buds pick up chemical stimuli.
male organ for urination and reproduction.
_____________________ produces sperm. The process that continues life is called _________________________. ______________________ produces eggs.
testes, fertilization, ovaaries
The atmosphere is made of ____________________________ (the largest part), __________________ and other gases.
Skeletal muscles always work in _________________________
What two systems remove waste?
Respiratory and excretory
Define Heredity and Give an example:
the passing of genitic traits, getting brown eyes from your mom
. What is DNA? Where is it found?
Hereditary is information that codes for traits. It is found in the nucleus of all cells and makes up chromosomes
. Name two factors that can help determine our characteristics (traits).
Genes (DNA) and environment
Green skin is a recessive trait in a certain species of lizard. If two green lizards mate, what percentage of their offspring will be green?
If an organism has a recessive trait they can only have recessive genes and can only pass along the recessive trait so… 100%
The 2 genes an organism has, ex: Rr
The physical traits an organism has, ex: red hair
Genetics is the study of:
Describe the following types of adaptations. Give two examples of each.
A. Physical trait ex. hollow bones, large ears
B. how the animal acts in the environment
C. how it maintains homeostasis in the body ex. storage of food in a bulb, regulation of glucose
What is the difference between selective breeding and natural selection?
Selective breeding is when people mate organisms with a specific trait. Natural selection occurs when organisms with certain traits survive and reproduce at a high rate.
Define asexual reproduction:
reproduction with only one parent
Define sexual reproduction
reproduction with two parents
define dominant trait
trait that is common
define reccesive trait
trait that is uncommon
having two identical genes: having two identical genes at the corresponding loci of homologous chromosomes
having genetic variants: describes a cell or organism that has two or more different versions alleles of at least one of its genes.
Describe this in one word:
A. Water enters the plant through the roots
B. Chlorophyll is located in the chloroplast of the tree leaves.
C. Water vapor exits through the stoma.
D. Sunlight or radiant energy enters the plant
E. Carbon dioxide leaves the animals and is enters the plant through the stoma
F. Glucose or chemical energy is produced by photosynthesis and stored in the plant.
G. Oxygen leaves the plant through the stoma and is used by the animal
Tropism is the plants reactions to stimuli to the growth of the plant. List all three types and tell what they are reacting to
A. Phototropism: lightB. Geotropism: GravityC. Hydrotropism: Water
Define each of the following and give an example of each.
Group of rabbits; group of rabbits, blue bird, deer; group of rabbits, blubird, deer dirt.
List at least three items that are considered abiotic parts of an ecosystem
Where do hurricanes form?
over the ocean
What is nature’s most out of control storm?
What is the highest category for a hurricane?
Flash floods occur when there is extremely heavy ___ over a short length of time.
Runoff loosens the _____ and mud flows into river valleys.
What is a tsunami?
A 20 meter high wave caused by an earthquake on the ocean floor.
What would the impact be for humans if a hurricane hit a highly populated area?
Many deaths and a lot of damage
What is magma called when it flows onto Earth’s surface?
What is equilibrium?
When everything is in balance
Give 3 examples of primary succession.
Glacier melting exposing rock, island forming after volcanic eruption,Lava from a volcano forming new crust
Give 3 examples of secondary succession.
Farming, logging, mining
In an ecosystem, what is equilibrium?
When the numbers and species of organisms in it do not change suddenly
In secondary succession, what are the pioneer species?
Seeds of plants that were already present
In primary succession, what are the pioneer species?