Astronomy Final

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Astronomy Final
2012-05-12 19:56:57
Astronomy final

Astronomy Final Chapters1-17
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  1. If you were on the moon during a total lunar eclipse, the sun would be hidden behind Earth.
  2. A light-year is the distance light travels in one year.
  3. The totally eclipsed moon glows coppery red because sunlight reaches the moon's surface after passing through Earth's atmosphere.
  4. The sun is a star in the Milky Way Galaxy
  5. A second magnitude star in Ursa Major is brighter than a fourth magnitude star in Orion
  6. The Greek letter designation conveys information about a star's location and brightness.
  7. A magnitude 3.2 star is brighter than a magnitude -1.2 star
  8. The sun is on the celestial equator at the times of
    b. the autumnal equinox and the vernal equinox.
  9. The point in Earth's orbit when Earth is farthest from the sun is known as
    a. aphelion
  10. The magnitude scale
    b. can be used to indicate the apparent intensity of a celestial object.
  11. The star Vega has an apparent visual magnitude of 0.03 and the star HR 4374 has an apparent visual magnitude of 4.87. It has been determined that both stars are at the same distance from Earth. What does this information tell us about the two stars?
    Vega must produce more energy than HR 4374.
  12. A totally eclipsed moon glows coppery red because
    d. only red light is able to pass completely through Earth's atmosphere and reach the moon.
  13. Scientific notation is used in science because
    a. it makes it easy to write big or small numbers
  14. If the nearest star is 4.2 light-years away, then
    b. the light we see left the star 4.2 years ago
  15. Total lunar eclipses always occur at the time
    b. of full moon
  16. Spring tides occur
    c. at new moon and full moon
  17. Northern Hemisphere winters are colder than Northern Hemisphere summers because
    • c. the light from the sun shines more directly on the Northern Hemisphere during the summer.
    • d. the period of sunlight is longer during the summer than during the winter.
  18. The celestial equator is
    • a. a line around the sky directly above Earth's equator.
    • b. the dividing line between the north and south celestial hemispheres.
  19. The number 520,600,000,000 would be written in scientific notation as
    5.206 x 1011
  20. The average distance from Earth to the sun is one
    Astronomical unit
  21. Explain why there are two high tides and two low tides each day using the following diagram.
    Gravity and Lack of Gravity
  22. What causes the difference between the spring and neap tides?
    • Position on the Moon.
    • Spring tide - full & new moon (working with the Sun)
    • Neap tide - 1st & 3rd quarter (working at odds with the Sun)
  23. Why isn't the winter solstice the coldest day of the year?
    Thermal Lag
  24. An absorption spectrum is also called a bright line spectrum
  25. Isotopes of the same element have the same number of protons
  26. Hydrogen lines are weak in the spectra of hot stars because many of the hydrogen atoms are ionized.
  27. Blue stars are hotter than red stars.
  28. The Lyman series lines of hydrogen all lie in the infrared
  29. The Doppler effect is sensitive only to motion along the line of sight.
  30. An atom that has lost an electron is called an ion.
  31. Most of the visible light from the sun originates in the photosphere.
  32. The absolute magnitude of a star is the apparent magnitude it would have if it were 10 pc from Earth.
  33. To observe a spectroscopic binary, we must be able to see both stars individually
  34. The Babcock model employs differential rotation of the solar surface and a magnetic dynamo to describe the formation of sunspots.
  35. The location of a star in the HR diagram indicates its temperature and intrinsic brightness
  36. The chromosphere of the sun has a higher temperature than the photospher.
  37. Granulation is caused by rising currents of hot gas below the photosphere
  38. Sunspots are hotter than the photosphere
  39. We can find the masses and diameters of stars that are in eclipsing binary systems.
  40. The Ptolemaic model of the universe was heliocentric
  41. The Copernican model of the solar system has the planets orbit the sun along elliptical paths.
  42. The amount of energy a photon carries depends on its wavelength
  43. Copernicus was the first to propose that Earth moved around the sun.
  44. Classical Greek astronomers believed the motions of the heavens could be described by uniform circular motion
  45. Reflecting telescopes are no longer popular with astronomers because they are expensive and suffer from chromatic aberration.
  46. The neutral hydrogen atom consists of
    d. one proton and one electron.
  47. Which of the following can be determined by using the Doppler effect?
    • a. The speed at which a star is moving away from an observer.
    • b. The transverse velocity of a star.
  48. You are standing near a railroad track and a train is moving toward you at 60 mph and blowing its horn. What will you notice as the train moves past you?
    b. As the train approaches, the horn will sound higher in pitch than when the train is moving away.
  49. In the diagram below, which of the transitions would absorb a photon with the greatest energy.
    d. Transition 4