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To calculate ∆S
= S(products) - S(reactants)
- Increase in entropy or disorder = +∆S
- Decrease in entropy or increase in order = –∆S
- 1. Depends on number of particles not mass.
- 2. Raises bp and lowers fp (antifreeze)
A loss in weight from heating a solution occurs because...
Volatile components are released.
Calculating energy lost to Ffriction
Energy dissipated by frictional force is equal to the force they are exerting times the distance over which they exert that force.
Coherent definition (light)
Coherent light are light waves that are "in phase" with one another.
Diffuse definition (light)
Light waves are widely divergent or scattered.
An alpha glucose ring differs from a beta glucose ring at...
The C-1 carbon
Nearsighted problem and correction
Image is in front of the retina.
Divergent lens for correction.
Carbonyl, C=O (IR absorbance)
1700 sharp, deep
Alcohol, OH (IR absorbance)
3300 broad, separate from CH
Saturated Alkane, CH (IR absorbance)
2800 sharp, deep
Carboxylic Acid, OH (IR absorbance)
3000 broad, overlaps CH
Amine, NH (IR absorbance)
3300 broad, shallow
Amide, NH (IR absorbance)
3300 broad, deep
Nitriles, CN (IR absorbance)
2250 sharp, deep
Specific Gravity formula
SG = Dsubstance/DH2O
D = density
Taxonomy classifications and levels
Gram Positive Characteristics
- Stain purple (high amount of peptidoglycan retains dye)
- Very thick cell walls
- Form endospores
- Single cell membrane.
Gram Negative Characteristics
- Stain pink (bc the relatively low amount of peptidoglycan)
- Relatively thin cell wall
- Do NOT form endospores
- Contain two cell membranes (inside and outside of the cell wall)
The ways for bacterial gene exchange
Transformation: take up DNA from surroundings.
Transduction: genes transfered via virus
Conjugation: sex pilus (other bacteria)
Primary, secondary, etc. in O-Chem
Depends on how many are actually bonded to the atom in question.
pH of blood
Just over 7 in a healthy individual.
Goes up with excess O2 and down with excess CO2.
Blood flow through heart
- (VC) Vena cavae
- (RA) Right atrium
- (RV) Right ventricle
- (PA) Pulmonary artery
- (PV) Pulmonary vein
- (LA) Left atrium
- (LV) Left ventricle
- (A) Aorta
- Body organs
- Right atrium again
Thickness of ventricular walls
Left ventricular wall is thicker and generates higher pressure upon contraction.
Liver and pancreas are parts of what system?
Stores bile produced by the liver that digests hydrophobic fats (e.g. triglycerides)
Medium needed to culture viruses
Intact cells with all intracellular mechanisms still functioning are needed.