HLSC 118 FINAL

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NorCalTopaz
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HLSC 118 FINAL
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2012-05-14 17:35:19
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HLSC 118 FINAL CHAPTERS 11
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CHAPTERS 7, 8, 9 AND 11
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  1. What are the precursors to the high rates of maternal, infant and child morbidity and mortality?
    • unintended pregnancies
    • lack of prenatal care
    • poor maternal and child nutrition
    • maternal drug use
    • low immunization rates
    • poverty
    • limited education
    • insufficient child care
    • combined with a lack of access to health care services in a community
  2. What is family planning and what does it include?
    Family planning is defined as the process of determining the preferred number and spacing of children in one’s family and choosing the appropriate means to achieve the preference. Page 184

    WHAT DOES IT INCLUDE? Make a conscious decision on whether or not to become a parent. Parenthood requires enormous amounts of time, energy, and financial commitment, but most notably it require the willingness to take full responsibility for a child’s growth and development. In general it is considered important that a pregnancy be planned to ensure the best health for the mother and fetus during the pregnancy. Page 183
  3. What is an unintended pregnancy and what are they associated with?
    An unintended pregnancy is a pregnancy that is either mistimed (the woman did not want to be pregnant until later) or unwanted (the woman did not want to be pregnant at any time) at the time of conception.

    The risky behaviors include delayed entry into prenatal care, inadequate weight gain, cigarette smoking, and the use of alcohol and other drugs.
  4. What is Title X of the Public Health Service Act?
    Title X of the Public Health Service Act was signed into law by President Nixon in 1970 to provide family planning services and help to all who wanted them but could not afford them. Title X has been this nation’s major program to reduce unintended pregnancy by providing contraceptive and other reproductive health care services to low-income women. Currently, it provides funding support to approximately 61% of the 4,000 plus family planning centers nationwide.
  5. What is the gag rule?
    In 1984, the gag rule regulations barred doctors and nurses in clinics receiving federal fund from counseling clients about abortions. Family planning providers challenged this legislation on the grounds that it denied women their rights to information that was needed to make an informed decision. Supporters of the gag rule regulation felt that Title X was created to help prevent unwanted pregnancy by providing education and contraception services and was not intended to provide services related to pregnancy options.
  6. What is maternal health and maternal mortality?
    Maternal health encompasses the health of women in the childbearing years, including those in the pre-pregnancy period, those who are pregnant, and those who are caring for young children. Pregnancy and delivery can sometimes lead to serious problems.

    The 10th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD 10) defines a maternal death as “the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes.
  7. What is the maternal mortality rate?
    The maternal mortality rate is the number of mothers dying per 100,000 live births in a given year. The number of live births is used in the denominator because the total number of pregnant women is unknown.

    Causes of maternal death are classified as direct, indirect, or unspecified. The most common direct causes include complications related to the puerperium (period after delivery), eclampsia, and preeclampsia, and hemorrhage. Indirect causes comprise deaths preexisting conditions complicated by pregnancy
  8. What does prenatal care include?
    • The goals of prenatal care include:
    • providing the best care for the pregnant woman and the unborn child
    • preparing the mother-to-be for the delivery of a healthy baby.

    During prenatal visits, tests are performed on both the mother and fetus to assess any potential risks, to treat any maternal or fetal complications, and to monitor the growth and development of the fetus. In addition, counseling and guidance are provided regarding the various aspects of pregnancy, including weight gain, exercise, nutrition, and overall health.
  9. What is the main policy goal of most funded programs designed to reduce the incidence of low birth weight and infant mortality in the U.S?
    Getting pregnant women into prenatal care early (during the first 3 months of pregnancy) is the main goal of most publicly funded programs designed to reduce the incidence of low birth weight and infant mortality in the U.S
  10. What does an infant’s health depend on?
    An infant’s health depends of many factors which includes:

    • the mother’s health and her health behavior prior to and during the pregnancy
    • her level of prenatal care
    • the quality of her delivery
    • the infant’s environment after birth
    • the availability post-natal physical exam by a neonatologist (a medical doctor who specializes in the care of newborn children up to 2 months of age)
    • regular visits to a doctor
    • appropriate immunizations.

    The infant’s health also depends on proper nutrition and nurturing care in the home environment.
  11. What has attributed to the decline of the infant mortality rate between 1980 and 2000?
    The infant mortality rate is expressed as the number of deaths of children younger than 1 year per 1,000 live births.

    The infant mortality rate gradually declined from 1980 to 2000 because of:

    • improved disease surveillance
    • advanced clinical care
    • improved access to health care
    • better nutrition
    • the recommendation that infants be placed on their backs when sleeping
    • increased educational levels for parents.

    Since 2000, the infant mortality rate has shown no further significant decline, maintaining a rate of between 6.7 and 7.0 deaths.
  12. What are the leading causes of infant mortality?
    The leading causes of infant death include:

    • congenital abnormalities
    • preterm/low birth weight
    • sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
    • problems related to complications of pregnancy
    • respiratory distress syndrome.
  13. What is the leading cause of death among children?
    Unintentional injuries kill more children than all the diseases combined.

    The overwhelming majority of unintentional injury deaths in children are the result of motor vehicle crashes.

    Moreover, the majority of children were not wearing a seat belt or other restraint. All 50 states have primary child restraint laws; however, the provisions of these laws vary from state to state.
  14. How does the U.S. compare to other industrialized countries regarding infant mortality rates?
    The U.S. has higher infant and maternal mortality rates than other industrialized nations: it ranked 30th in infant mortality and 20th in maternal mortality in 2005.

    Currently, we are ranked 28th in infant mortality
  15. What is prenatal care?
    • Prenatal care includes 3 major components
    • risk assessment
    • treatment for medical conditions or risk reduction
    • and education.
  16. Define Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (F.A.S.)
    • A group of abnormalities that may include:
    • growth retardation
    • abnormal appearance of face and head
    • deficits of central nervous system
    • including mental retardation

    F.A.S. appears in babies born to mothers who have consumed heavy amounts of alcohol during their pregnancies.
  17. 1. Define Sudden Infant Syndrome (S.I.D.S.)
    The sudden, unanticipated death of an infant in whom, after examination, there is no recognizable cause of death. SIDS is the leading cause of infant death after the first month of life, and the third leading cause of death within the first month of life.
  18. What can pregnant women do to prevent low birth weight (L.B.W.) babies?
    Low birth babies are defined as 5.5 lbs or below

    • All pregnant women should
    • (1) get early, regular prenatal care
    • (2) eat a balanced diet, including adequate amounts of folic acid
    • (3) gain enough weight
    • (4) AVOID smoking and drinking alcohol.
  19. What does tobacco use during pregnancy lead to?
    Researchers estimate that smoking during pregnancy is linked to 20% to 30% of Low Birth Weight infants and 10% of infant deaths. The incidence of LBW infants among mothers who smoke is more than twice that of non-smokers. The good news is that the percentage of births to women who smoked during pregnancy has been drooping, from 19.5% in 1989 to 10% in 2006.
  20. What are some advantages of breastfeeding?
    Breast milk contains substances that help babies resist infections and other diseases.

    • Breastfed babies have:
    • few ear infections and colds
    • fewer bouts of diarrhea
    • vomit less often.

    • Also, breastfeeding has been shown to improve maternal health by
    • reducing postpartum bleeding
    • allowing for an earlier return to pre-pregnancy weight
    • reducing the risk for osteoporosis.
  21. Has the mortality increased or decreased among adolescents and young adults in the last few decades?
    Significantly declined
  22. What are the three leading causes of death among adolescents and young adults?
    • Unintentional injuries (car accidents) 46.5%
    • homicide 16%
    • suicide 12%
  23. What are the most prevalent STDs among adolescents and young adults?
    • IN THOSE UNDER 25:
    • 75% of all chlamydia cases
    • 60% of all gonorrhea cases
  24. What behaviors lead to unintentional injuries among high school students?
    • Unintentional injuries:
    • Seat belt use
    • non-usage of helmets while riding bicycles and motorcycles
    • riding with a driver who consumed alcohol driving after alcohol consumption
  25. What behaviors lead to violence among high school students?
    • violence:
    • carrying a weapon
    • engaging in a physical fight
    • engaging in dating violence
    • being forced to have sex
    • engaging in school-related violence like bullying
    • suicide ideation
    • suicide attempts
  26. Prevention programs aimed at young adults include components that focus on what?
    • Include components that focus on:
    • changing norms
    • interaction among peers
    • social skills training
    • and developmental and cultural appropriateness
  27. What is the leading cause of death among those who are 25-44 years of age?
    For those who are 45-64 years of age?
    25-44 years of age: unintentional injuries

    45-64 years of age: cancer

    THIS AGE GROUP REPRESENTS MORE THAN HALF OF THE U.S. POPULATION
  28. Differentiate between primary, secondary and tertiary prevention.
    • Primary – the planning for and taking action to forestall the onset of a disease or other health problem
    • (EXAMPLE: EXERCISE AND NUTRITION PROGRAMS)

    • Secondary – preventive measures that lead to an early diagnosis and prompt treatment of a disease or injury to limit disability and prevent more severe pathogenesis
    • (EXAMPLE: self and clinical screenings to identify and control disease processes)

    • Tertiary – measures aimed at rehabilitation following significant pathogenesis (retrain, re-educate and rehabilitate the individual who has incurred a disability)
    • (EXAMPLE: medication compliance)


    Pathogenicity – the production and development of disease
  29. What is the estimated percentage of all new HIV infections occurring in the US in people under 25?
    ½ of all new HIV infections occur in those under the age of 25
  30. What do retailers have to abide by regarding the sale of tobacco products to adolescents and young adults?
    Retailers must verify the age of those purchasing tobacco products if they appear to be under the age of 27, they must be “carded” by retailers.
  31. What behaviors lead to unintentional injuries among college students?
    • Unintentional injuries:
    • car crashes
    • driving after alcohol consumption
    • riding with a driver after they consumed alcohol
    • not wearing seat belts
    • swimming or boating after consuming alcohol
  32. What behaviors lead to violence among college students?
    • violence:
    • carrying a weapon
    • fighting
    • suicide
    • Sexual assault: ¼ of all college females have experienced sexual abuse/assault in the past year.
    • Sexual assault includes unwanted sexual touching, verbal threats, attempted and completed penetration.


    11.2% of all college females and 7.1% of all college males have been in an emotionally abusive relationship in the past year
  33. What is the most widespread, high-risk behavior for 15-to-24 year olds?
    The use of tobacco products
  34. Adolescents and young adults comprise the 15-24 year-old age range and how are adolescents defined?
    Adolescents are defined as those from puberty to maturity.
  35. Adults are comprised of?
    ...the 25-64 year-old age group. Those between the ages of 15-64 are considered the most productive time of their lives.
  36. What do adolescents face from puberty to maturity?
    • hormonal changes
    • physical maturation
    • & frequent opportunities to engage in risky behavior
  37. What is the percentage of high school students who smoke? Nicotine dependency begins when?
    • ¼ of high school students smoke
    • the majority of people (90%) who become dependent upon nicotine develop that dependency between the ages of 15 and 24
  38. Differentiate between young old, middle old and old old?
    • Young old: age 65-74
    • Middle old: age 75-84
    • Old old: age 85 and over

    • Those over 65 are known as ELDERS
  39. What is ageism?
    • Ageism: is the result of ignorance, misconception, and half-truths about aging and the elderly
    • (prejudice and discrimination against the aged)
  40. What is the difference between chronic conditions and impairments?
    • Chronic conditions:
    • are systemic health problems that persist longer than three months, such as hypertension, arthritis, heart disease, diabetes, and emphysema.

    • Impairments:
    • are deficits in the functioning of one’s sense organs or limitations in one’s mobility or range of motions.
  41. What facts do we know about elder abuse and neglect?
    • Facts about elder abuse and neglect:
    • -increase greatly in recent years
    • -mid 1980s to mid 1990s elder abuse and neglect increased in U.S. about 150%
    • -all 50 states pass elder abuse prevention law
    • -in 1998 about 551,000 elderly persons over age 60 had experienced abuse (physical, emotion, and psychological)
    • -Female elders are abused at a higher rate than men
    • -elders 80 years and older are abused or neglected at two to three times the rate of their proportion of the elderly population
    • -almost 90% of all elder abuse and neglect incidents where a perpetrator is identified, the perpetrator is a family member, and two-thirds of the perpetrators are adult children or spouse
    • -victims of self-neglect are usually depressed, confused, or extremely frail
  42. Name six basic needs that determine the functioning of lifestyle for older adults.
    • 1) Income
    • 2) Housing
    • 3) Personal Care
    • 4) Health Care
    • 5) Transportation
    • 6) Community Facilities and Services
  43. What are four different levels of tasks that older adults may need assistance with in their older years?
    • 1) Instrumental task – such as housekeeping, transportation, maintenance on the automobile or yard, and assistance with business affairs
    • 2) Expressive task – including emotional support, socializing and inclusion in social gathering, and trying to prevent feelings of loneliness and isolation
    • 3) Cognitive tasks – assistance that involves scheduling appointments, monitoring health conditions, reminding elders of the need to take medications, and in general acting as a backup memory
    • 4) Tasks of daily living –such as eating, bathing, dressing, toileting, walking, getting in and out of bed or a chair, and getting outside
  44. Differentiate between ADLs and IADLs.
    • ADLs:
    • Are activities of daily living (ADLs), to measure functioning limitations. Functioning limitation refers to the difficulty in performing personal care and home management tasks

    • IADLs:
    • Instrumental Activities of daily living (IADLs), measure more complex tasks such as handling personal finances, preparing meals, shopping, doing housework, traveling, using the telephone, and taking medication.
  45. What is the difference between a care provider and a care manager?
    Care provider: helps identify the health care needs of the individual and personally performs the caregiving service.

    Care manager: helps to identify needs, but due to living some distance away or for other reasons, does not provide the service; care manager makes arrangements for someone else (volunteer or paid) to provide the services.
  46. Caregivers are susceptible to a number of problems, including what?
    • --decreased personal freedom
    • --lack of privacy
    • --constant demands on their time and energy --resentment that siblings do not share in the caregiving
    • --increased financial burden
  47. What are some solutions that may help solve or lessen the degree of the problems associated with transportation?
  48. 1) Fare reductions or discounts for all public transportation, including that for interstate travel
    • 2) Subsidies to ensure adequate scheduling and routing of present public transportation
    • 3) Subsidized taxi fares for the disabled and infirmed
    • 4) Funds for senior centers to purchase and equip vehicles to transport seniors properly, especially in rural areas.
  49. Describe the Baby Boom phenomena
    Baby boomers are those who were born post WWII, between the years of 1946-1964. 76 million babies were born during this time (the birth explosion was described as a baby boom, hence the name), which constitutes a "human tidal wave," (pg. 246, sixth edition). This bulge in U.S. demographics will tax the Social Security and Medicare system in this country as we age, as the last of the Baby Boomers turn 50 in 2014.
  50. What state has the greatest number of elders?
    Greatest percentage of elders?
    • --State has the greatest number of elders is CALIFORNIA (3.8 million)
    • --State has the greatest percentage of elders is FLORIDA (16.8%, 3 million)
  51. What source of income do elders depend most heavily on?
    Social security, pensions a distant second.
  52. Has the number of resident patients in state and county mental hospitals has declined since the 1950s?
    • Yes.
    • The deinstitutionalization was led by four forces :
    • economics
    • idealism
    • legal considerations
    • development of and marketing of antipsychotic drugs.
    • Economy couldn't support a lot of mental patients they had to spread out the funding more even on education , roads and welfare. Another issue was whether it was legal to keep people locked up in mental hospitals
  53. Are community mental health centers eligible for Medicare reimbursement?
    • Yes by proving four core services
    • outpatient services to older adults and children and people with serious mental illness
    • 24- hour a day emergency care
    • day treatment or other partial hospitalization services
    • screening to determine whether to admit patients to state mental facilities.
  54. Do prison and jail inmates have mental health problems?
    Yes, more than half of inmates have mental health problems

    People with serious mental illness perpetrate more violence than others

    35% of people with mental illness are victimized by violence
  55. What is the term created by the managed care industry that applies to mental health and substance abuse care?
    Behavioral health care services – is the managed care term for mental health and substance abuse/dependence care services
  56. What are mental disorders?
    • Mental disorders -Health conditions characterized by
    • alterations in thinking
    • mood
    • or behavior associated with distress
    • and/or impaired functioning
  57. What are some of the causes of mental disorders?
    genetic influences on complex brain functions that control a person’s thoughts and emotions

    physiological disruptions in hormones such as testosterone and vasopressin

    intrauterine infections and malnutrition, maladaptive family functioning, or stress

    -2/3 of mental retardation cases are traceable to environmental factors such as prenatal care, poor maternal nutrition, or maternal exposure to alcohol, tobacco or other drugs


    Mental disorders can also occur from postnatal exposure to physical, chemical and biological agents (including secondhand cigarette smoke)
  58. What is the most influential book in mental health?
    DSM - Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

    4th edition text revision expected in 2013
  59. List some psychophysiological disorders associated with stress?
    • Allergies
    • cancer
    • cardiovascular conditions
    • coronary artery disease
    • depression
    • hypertension.
  60. What are the four health risks for infants/children raised in single-parent households?
    • Poverty
    • Higher infant mortality
    • Adverse birth outcomes
    • Low birth weight

    • 35.8% of live births were to unmarried mothers in 2004
  61. Unmarried mothers (as compared to their married counterparts) tend to have three characteristics:
    • lower education
    • lower incomes
    • greater dependence on welfare assistance
  62. Teenage mothers are more likely to (four items):
    • drop out of school
    • live in poverty
    • be single or have a marriage end in divorce
    • rely on public assistance
  63. Teen mothers are more likely to (list of four):
    • give birth to preterm babies
    • have low birth weight babies
    • smoke during pregnancy
    • have pregnancy complications

    1/3 of teenage women before the age of 20 will get pregnant at least once
  64. What is the definition of aged and aging?
    Aged– state of being old

    Aging– changes that occur as living things grow older
  65. What is the definition of gerontology and geriatrics?
    • •Gerontology– the study of aging
    • •Geriatrics– the medicine specialty for older adults
  66. Three factors that affect population size and age are:
    1. Fertility rates:– number of births per 1000 women ages 15-44– *76 million baby boomers

    2. Mortality rate:– deaths per 100,000 population; steady last 20+ years;– interacts with life expectancy– *recent data reveal a figure of 833

    • 3. Migration:– movement from one country to another
    • highest after the Civil War
  67. Elder women are 3 times more likely to be widowed because (list of three):
    • (1) Men have shorter life expectancies
    • (2) Men tend to marry women younger than themselves
    • (3) Men are more likely to remarry (thus, most men have spouse assistance)
  68. What is mental health?
    Emotional and social well-being; psychological resources for dealing with day-to-day problems of life
  69. What is mental illness?
    A collective term for all diagnosable mental disorders
  70. What are mental disorders?
    • Health conditions characterized by alterations in
    • thinking
    • mood
    • or behavior associated with distress and/or impaired functioning
  71. What are the characteristics of good mental health?
    • Function under adversity
    • Change or adapt to changes around them
    • Maintain control over their tension and anxiety
    • Find more satisfaction in giving than receiving
    • Show consideration for others
    • Curb hate and guilt
    • Love others
  72. What is the percentage in the United States of unintended pregnancies?
    50%. Of those, 40% end in abortion
  73. Excessive alcohol consumption among college students is associated with?
    • Fatal and nonfatal injuries
    • Alcohol poisoning
    • Academic failure
    • Unintended pregnancy
    • STDS
    • Various forms of violence
  74. In 2030, how many elders will there be in the U.S.?
    1 in 5 will be over 65
  75. Why are more elder women widowed?
    Elder women are 3 times more likely to be widowed b/c:

    • (1) Men have shorter life expectancies
    • (2) Men tend to marry women younger than themselves
    • (3) Men are more likely to remarry (thus, most men have spouse assistance)

    • More elder men are married than women
    • 3/4 of elder men are married
    • ½ of elder women are married
  76. What is the greatest cause of disability in the U.S.?
    Mental illness
  77. Five causes of mental disorders are?
    • genetic influences on complex brain functions that control a person’s thoughts and emotions
    • physiological disruptions in hormones
    • intrauterine infections and malnutrition
    • maladaptive family functioning
    • stress
  78. 2/3 of mental retardation can be traced back to three environmental factors in utero:
    • maternal malnutrition
    • lack of prenatal care
    • maternal exposure to drugs, alcohol or tobacco

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