Psychology 101 Final

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Psychology 101 Final
2012-05-13 05:18:28
Final Review

psy 101
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  1. Whos Wilhelm Wundt?
    founder of psychology
  2. B. F. Skinner
    • Famous behaviorist
    • became one of the most influential of all American psychologist
    • organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes they tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes
  3. Applied psychology
    • a branc of psychology concerned whith everyday practical problems
    • routine
  4. Empiricism
    The premise that knowledge should be acquired though abservation

    needs data, document prove
  5. Hypothesis
    A tentative statement about the relationship berween 2 or more vareables
  6. Operational Defenition
    Describes the actions or operations that will be used to measure or control a variable
  7. Independant Variable
    • A condition or event that an experimenter varies or maipulates in order to see its impact on another variable
    • causes change
  8. Dependent Variable
    • the variable that is thought to be affected by manipulation of the independent variable
    • gets changed
    • if independent varable is manipulated than dependent changes
  9. Termital buttons
    small knobs that secrete chemicals which are called neurotransmitters
  10. Synapse
    a junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to another
  11. Reuptake
    a process in which neurotransmitters are spinged up from synaptic cleft by the presynaptic neuron
  12. REM Sleep
    • Rapid Eye Movement
    • rapid eef
    • dreaming rem and profound muscle relaxating go with rem stage of sleep
  13. How can lethal overdose occur
    • stimulants
    • sedatives
    • narcotics
  14. Classical Conditioning
    A type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity ot evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus
  15. Conditioned Response
    A learned reaction to conditioned stimulus that occurs becuase of previous conditioning
  16. Negative Reinsforcement
    occurs when a response is streaghtned bcuz it is followed by the removal of aversive unpleseasant stimulus
  17. Attention
    involves focusing awareness on narrow range of stimuli or events
  18. Scheme
    is an organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object of sequence of events
  19. Archivement tests
    measure previous learning instead of potential
  20. skinner theory language
    • proposed that children learn language the same they learn everything else
    • though imitaion, reinforcement and shaping
  21. Language
    consistes of symbols that convey meaning and rules for combining these symbols that can be used to generate an infinite variety of messages
  22. Language is generative
    meaning a limited number ofsymbols that can combined in an infinite variety of ways to generate and endless array of meanings
  23. Shaping
    the reinforcement of closer and closer approxiamation of the desired response
  24. Age of viobility
    the age at which a baby can survive in the event of a premature birth sometime between 22 and 26 weeks
  25. Erik ericksons stage theory
    • trust vs mistrust
    • autonomy vs shame and doubt
    • initiative vs guild
    • industry vs inferiority
  26. The two major aspects of people are defined by personality are_____and_____
    • consistensy
    • distinctivenss
  27. The ID
    • the devil
    • the primitive instivtive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principles
    • i want it now
    • eat sleep sex poop peep
    • biologial urges
    • gets outof control breaks rules
  28. Ego
    • mediator
    • the brain
    • the decision making component of personality othat operates according to the reality principle
    • 2 yrs secondary process thinking moderage you dont always get wat you want
  29. Superego
    • Anger
    • against id/ morally wrong or right
    • the moral component of personality that incorporates social standarts about what represeents right and wron
    • guilt + shame when break rules
    • pride+ self satisfations when followe
  30. Stress
    any circumstances that threatenor are perceived to threten ones well being and thereby tax ones coping abilites
  31. Frustration
    is experienced whenever you want somehtin adn u cant have it
  32. Conflict
    occurs when two or more incompartible motificatiosn or behaviour implused compete for expression
  33. Phobia Disorder
    a persistend and irrational fear of an object or situation that presents no realistic danger
  34. Panic Disorder
    Recurrent attacks of overwhelmin anxiety that usually occur suddenlyor unexpectly
  35. Bipolar Disorder
    • formely known as main drepressive disorder
    • is marked by the experience of both depressend and maniac periods
  36. Lithium
    a chemical used to control mood swings in patients w. bipolar mood disorders
  37. Anti depresent drugs
    • gradually elevate mood and help bring ppl ou of depression
    • take 1 - 2 weeks to reduce symptoms of depression
  38. Group therapy
    • the simultaneous treatment of several clients in group
    • 4-15 ppl less expensive group memers fuctions as therapist for each other
  39. Behaviour therapy
    • involves applicaion of the principles of learning to direct efforts to change clients maldaptive behaviours
    • base on research by bf sknner
  40. Antianxiety drugs
    reduce tension, apprehension and nervousness including valium, xanax, and ativan.
  41. Tardive dyskinesia
    • a neurological disorder markedby involutary writhing and tic like movement of the mouth tongue and face
    • side effect of antipsychotic drugs
  42. Schizophrenic disorder
    are a class of disorders marked by fragmentation of taught processes including delusions, hallucinations speech and deterioration of adaptive behaviour
  43. Theory
    • is a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observatins.
    • symtoms
  44. Cognitive Therapy
    an isight threapy that empahsizex recognizing and changing negative thoughts and maladaptive beliefs
  45. Cilent centred therapy
    and insight therapy that imphasizes provding a supportive emotional climate for clients who play a major role in determining the pace and direction of their therapy.
  46. Experimental Research method
    a research method in which theinvestigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled condtions and observes whether any changes occur in a second varable as a relationships
  47. Fetal stage
    • the third stage of prenatal development lasting from two montss trough birth
    • the fetus becomes capable of physical movement during this stage
  48. Psychoanalysis
    • freuds method for treating mental disorder
    • for psychotdynamic+ freud focus on uncoucious mental forces
  49. Compensation
    • involves efforts to vercome imagined or real inferiourites by developing ones abilities
    • both argued freud over analys\zed sexual drugs
  50. Insight therapies
    clients engage in complex verbal interaction with their therapists with the goal being to pursue increased insight regarding their problems and to sort through possible solutions
  51. Resistanse
    refers to largely unconscious defensive manuevers intended to hinder the progress of therapy
  52. Free Association
    when clients spontaneously express their thoughts and feelings exactly as they occur with as little cesorship as possible
  53. Transference
    when clients start relating to the therapist in ways that mimic critcal relationships in their lives
  54. Psychiatrists
    are physicians who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment ofpsychological disorders. they prescribe drugs as well.
  55. Clinical psychologist
    who specialize in the diagnisis and reatment of psychological disorders and full fledged mental disorders