Cams Drug notes

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Cams Drug notes
2012-05-13 23:27:31

Cams Drug notes
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  1. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    Endoplasm means the cytoplasm located toward the center of a cell; Reticulum means network.
  2. Vestibule:
    • consists of the space between the
    • teeth and lips and cheeks
  3. Oral cavity:
    is the anatomical space bordered by the teeth, gums, palate, tongue and palatoglossal arch
  4. Pharynx
    • is the muscular tube that extends from the base of the skull to below the glottic
    • opening
  5. Glottis:
    is the opening into the airway, the lateral borders of the glottis are the vocal cords
  6. Glottic Opening:
    the space between the vocal cords
  7. Valsalva Maneuver:
    A forced exhalation effort against a closed glottis, causes a dramatic intrathoracic pressure, occurs with coughing, lifting heavy objects and defecating.This is the Vegas Nerve, X.
  8. Laryngospasm:
    • A strong, spastic closure of the vocal cords usually initiated by foreign bodies deep in the airway.
    • This protective mechanism normally only lasts a few seconds, may threaten the airway if it persists.
  9. Larynx:
    • Is a complex structure formed by many independent cartilaginous structures that all work together:
    • • Thyroid cartilage
    • Cricoid cartilage
  10. The superior border of the glottis opening is the:
  11. The vallecula
    • Is the area between the tongue and epiglottis. It is the Valley at the back of the tongue above the epiglotis
    • Epigastric:
    • The first place to auscultate
  12. Parietal Pleura is
  13. Visceral Pleura is
    The inner part.
  14. The alveoli are lined with a proteinacious substance known as
  15. atelectasis:
    Collapsed Alveoli.
  16. The 2 Pleural cavities are separated by the
  17. Ventilation
    Process of moving air in and out of the lungs.
  18. Negative pressure Ventilation
    Increasing the volume of the intrathoracic cavities thereby lowering the pressure (Negative pressure) and the then higher atmospheric pressure wants to push in.
  19. Respiratory Rhythmicity Center
    • This is the primary control center of respiration
    • It is located in the medulla oblongata
    • It is connected to respiratory muscles via the vagus nerve
  20. Apneustic Center
    • This is the “backup” system
    • It’s other purpose is to increase the frequency of resps
    • It is located in the pons
  21. Pneumotaxic Center
    • It’s purpose is to decrease the frequency of resps
    • It is also located in the pons, control expiration
  22. Alveolar Ventilation:
    • The process of replacing the air in the alveoli with fresh air
    • AKA: deep lung ventilation
  23. Dead Space:
    is the volume that does not contain air that can participate in respiration
  24. Anatomic Dead Space: air that remains in the
    mouth, trachea, bronchi and larger bronchioles,approximately 150 mL in the average adult
  25. Tidal Volume:
    • Is the volume of air inhaled and exhaled in a single respiratory cycle, normals are 5 to 7
    • mL/kg of lean body mass
  26. Physiologic Dead Space:
    Consolidation, deflation or obstructions caused by disease
  27. Alveolar Air:
    • Is the amount of gas that reaches the alveoli with each breath
    • Alveolar Air = Tidal Volume - Dead Space
  28. Minute Volume:
    • Is the amount of air passed through the lungs in 1 minute
    • Minute Volume = Tidal Volume × Respiratory Rate
  29. Residual Volume:
    The air that remains in your lungs after maximal expiration, about 1200 mLin the average adult
  30. Expiratory Reserve Volume:
    The amount of air that you can exhale following normal exhalation, also about 1200 mL
  31. Functional Residual Capacity:
    the amount of air left in your lungs after normal exhalation
  32. Inspiratory Reserve Volume:
    the amount of air you can inhale after a normal inhalation, about3000 mL in the average adult
  33. Functional Inspiratory Capacity:
    is the amount of air you inspire after normal exhalation
  34. Vital Capacity:
    the amount of air that you can forcefully exhale after a full inhalation, about 4800 mL
  35. Total Lung Capacity:
    Vital capacity + Residual volume.
  36. Oxygenation:
    • is the process of assuring an adequate supply of oxygen molecules for delivery to the body’s cells Adequate oxygenation requires that the gas used for ventilation contains an adequate percentage of oxygen.
    • Respiration
    • is the process of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide. This exchange occurs by a process of diffusion.
    • The movement of gases always follows a pressure gradient: an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
  37. Two types of respiration occur in mammals:
    • • Internal: exchange of O2 and CO2 between the blood and each cell in the body, occurs between the capillaries and tissue.
    • • External: exchange of O2 and CO2 between blood and
    • fresh air, occurs in the lungs.
  38. This is the most common cause of airway obstruction – especially in an unconscious patient.
    • The tongue.
    • A patient’s tongue can block their airway if they are supine, lateral or prone (depending on the position of the patient’s head and jaw).
  39. True or False, Vomitus is the most commonly aspirated material?
  40. Pathophysiology:
    • the functional changes associated with or resulting from disease or injury; the scientific
    • study of such changes.
  41. Etiology:
    the branch of medicine that deals with the causes or origins of disease; the cause or origin of a disease or disorder as determined by medical diagnosis.
  42. Manifestations:
    an indication of the existence, reality, or presence of something.
  43. Hydrostatic Pressure:
    the force of the water (plasma)against the wall of the capillary (force pushing out), heart beat. Pushing water out of the compartment.
  44. Oncotic (Osmotic)
    • Pressure: the force caused by having more protein molecules within the capillary
    • (protein molecule cannot pass through vessel membrane) causing water to shift back into the vessel (force pulling in). Pulling water to the compartment.
  45. There are two types of acids produced:
    • Respiratory acids – primarily due to poor lung function
    • Metabolic acids – primarily due to poor kidney function
  46. Pharmacology
    • • The study of the properties and effects of drugs and
    • medications
  47. Drugs
    • • Chemical agents used in the diagnosis, treatment and
    • prevention of disease
  48. Dose
    Amount of medication given, depends on the Pt’s size, age and desired action
  49. Action
    • Therapeutic effects expected on the body
  50. Polypharmacy
    • • Multiple medications prescribed, possibly by
    • multiple physicians
  51. Overmedicating
    • Taking medication(s) exceeding the therapeutic dose
  52. Lethal Dose
    • The quantity of medication that will produce lethal effects onthe patient
  53. Onset of action
    • • When the medication has been absorbed; the time it takes
    • for absorption
  54. Duration
    • The length of time the medication will have an effect
  55. Over the Counter (OTC)
    • Medications which are available from a pharmacist without a doctor’s prescription
  56. Prescription Medication
    • Medications which are available from a pharmacist which require a doctor’s prescription to obtain
  57. Plants
    • Atropine is from the Atropa Belladonna plant
  58. Animals
    • Some types of insulin is harvested from horses and pigs
  59. Minerals
    • Potassium is derived from sylvite
  60. Synthetic / Laboratory
    • Fentanyl is produced in a lab, so is lidocaine an diazepam (Valium)
  61. Micro-organisms
    Penicillin is made from mould
  62. Prevention
    • Tetanus vaccine
  63. Diagnosis
    • Radio-opaque dyes
  64. Treatment
    • Epinephrine
  65. Contraception
    Birth control
  66. Curative
    • Antibiotics
  67. Recreational
    Cocaine, meth…
  68. Supportive
  69. Parenteral Administration are;
    • • Drugs enter body via
    • means other than GI tract• Intravenous (IV)
    • • Endotracheal (ET)
    • • Intramuscular (IM)
    • • Subcutaneous (SQ,SC)
    • • Transdermal
    • • Inhalation (MDI, neb)
    • Umbilical
  70. Enteral Administration
    • • Drugs enter body via theGI tract
    • • Oral (PO)
    • • Rectal (PR)