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Endoplasm means the cytoplasm located toward the center of a cell; Reticulum means network.
- consists of the space between the
- teeth and lips and cheeks
- Oral cavity:
- is the anatomical space bordered by the teeth, gums, palate, tongue and palatoglossal arch
- is the muscular tube that extends from the base of the skull to below the glottic
is the opening into the airway, the lateral borders of the glottis are the vocal cords
the space between the vocal cords
A forced exhalation effort against a closed glottis, causes a dramatic intrathoracic pressure, occurs with coughing, lifting heavy objects and defecating.This is the Vegas Nerve, X.
- A strong, spastic closure of the vocal cords usually initiated by foreign bodies deep in the airway.
- This protective mechanism normally only lasts a few seconds, may threaten the airway if it persists.
- Is a complex structure formed by many independent cartilaginous structures that all work together:
- • Thyroid cartilage
- Cricoid cartilage
The superior border of the glottis opening is the:
- Is the area between the tongue and epiglottis. It is the Valley at the back of the tongue above the epiglotis
- The first place to auscultate
Visceral Pleura is
The inner part.
The alveoli are lined with a proteinacious substance known as
The 2 Pleural cavities are separated by the
Process of moving air in and out of the lungs.
Negative pressure Ventilation
Increasing the volume of the intrathoracic cavities thereby lowering the pressure (Negative pressure) and the then higher atmospheric pressure wants to push in.
Respiratory Rhythmicity Center
- This is the primary control center of respiration
- It is located in the medulla oblongata
- It is connected to respiratory muscles via the vagus nerve
- This is the “backup” system
- It’s other purpose is to increase the frequency of resps
- It is located in the pons
- Pneumotaxic Center
- It’s purpose is to decrease the frequency of resps
- It is also located in the pons, control expiration
- The process of replacing the air in the alveoli with fresh air
- AKA: deep lung ventilation
is the volume that does not contain air that can participate in respiration
Anatomic Dead Space: air that remains in the
mouth, trachea, bronchi and larger bronchioles,approximately 150 mL in the average adult
- Is the volume of air inhaled and exhaled in a single respiratory cycle, normals are 5 to 7
- mL/kg of lean body mass
Physiologic Dead Space:
Consolidation, deflation or obstructions caused by disease
- Is the amount of gas that reaches the alveoli with each breath
- Alveolar Air = Tidal Volume - Dead Space
- Is the amount of air passed through the lungs in 1 minute
- Minute Volume = Tidal Volume × Respiratory Rate
The air that remains in your lungs after maximal expiration, about 1200 mLin the average adult
Expiratory Reserve Volume:
The amount of air that you can exhale following normal exhalation, also about 1200 mL
Functional Residual Capacity:
the amount of air left in your lungs after normal exhalation
Inspiratory Reserve Volume:
the amount of air you can inhale after a normal inhalation, about3000 mL in the average adult
Functional Inspiratory Capacity:
is the amount of air you inspire after normal exhalation
- Vital Capacity:
- the amount of air that you can forcefully exhale after a full inhalation, about 4800 mL
- Total Lung Capacity:
- Vital capacity + Residual volume.
- is the process of assuring an adequate supply of oxygen molecules for delivery to the body’s cells Adequate oxygenation requires that the gas used for ventilation contains an adequate percentage of oxygen.
- is the process of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide. This exchange occurs by a process of diffusion.
- The movement of gases always follows a pressure gradient: an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
Two types of respiration occur in mammals:
- • Internal: exchange of O2 and CO2 between the blood and each cell in the body, occurs between the capillaries and tissue.
- • External: exchange of O2 and CO2 between blood and
- fresh air, occurs in the lungs.
This is the most common cause of airway obstruction – especially in an unconscious patient.
- The tongue.
- A patient’s tongue can block their airway if they are supine, lateral or prone (depending on the position of the patient’s head and jaw).
True or False, Vomitus is the most commonly aspirated material?
- the functional changes associated with or resulting from disease or injury; the scientific
- study of such changes.
- the branch of medicine that deals with the causes or origins of disease; the cause or origin of a disease or disorder as determined by medical diagnosis.
- an indication of the existence, reality, or presence of something.
the force of the water (plasma)against the wall of the capillary (force pushing out), heart beat. Pushing water out of the compartment.
- Oncotic (Osmotic)
- Pressure: the force caused by having more protein molecules within the capillary
- (protein molecule cannot pass through vessel membrane) causing water to shift back into the vessel (force pulling in). Pulling water to the compartment.
There are two types of acids produced:
- Respiratory acids – primarily due to poor lung function
- Metabolic acids – primarily due to poor kidney function
- • The study of the properties and effects of drugs and
- • Chemical agents used in the diagnosis, treatment and
- prevention of disease
- Amount of medication given, depends on the Pt’s size, age and desired action
• Therapeutic effects expected on the body
- • Multiple medications prescribed, possibly by
- multiple physicians
- • Taking medication(s) exceeding the therapeutic dose
• The quantity of medication that will produce lethal effects onthe patient
- Onset of action
- • When the medication has been absorbed; the time it takes
- for absorption
- • The length of time the medication will have an effect
Over the Counter (OTC)
• Medications which are available from a pharmacist without a doctor’s prescription
- Prescription Medication
- • Medications which are available from a pharmacist which require a doctor’s prescription to obtain
• Atropine is from the Atropa Belladonna plant
- • Some types of insulin is harvested from horses and pigs
- • Potassium is derived from sylvite
Synthetic / Laboratory
• Fentanyl is produced in a lab, so is lidocaine an diazepam (Valium)
- Penicillin is made from mould
• Tetanus vaccine
- • Radio-opaque dyes
- Birth control
- Cocaine, meth…
Parenteral Administration are;
- • Drugs enter body via
- means other than GI tract• Intravenous (IV)
- • Endotracheal (ET)
- • Intramuscular (IM)
- • Subcutaneous (SQ,SC)
- • Transdermal
- • Inhalation (MDI, neb)
- • Drugs enter body via theGI tract
- • Oral (PO)
- • Rectal (PR)