PSY 210 Final Study Guide

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  1. What is statistics?
    Value that describes a sample
  2. What is population?
    Set of all inividuals of interest in a particular study
  3. What is sample?
    Set of individuals selected from a population, usually inteded to represent the population in a research study
  4. What is parameter?
    A value that describes a population
  5. Independent variable vs. dependent variable
    • Independent variable: the variable being manipulated by the researcher
    • Dependent variable: the one that is observed to assesss the effect of the treatment
  6. Symbolic notations
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    • Add all of the scores in the group.

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    • Compute inside parentheses first, then square it.

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    • Square each score, then add up squared scores.
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    Frequency distribution
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    bar graph
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  11. Shape of Distribution
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    Positively skewed
  12. Shape of Distribution
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    Negatively skewed
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  15. Measures of Central Tendency: Mode
    The score or category has the greatest frequency
  16. Measures of Central Tendency: Median
    The score that divides the distibution in half
  17. Measures of Central Tendency: Mean
    Arithmetic average
  18. Which Measure of Central Tendency is most influenced by outliers?
    • Mean
    • Incorporate every score
  19. Variance Equation
    variance = mean squared deviation =

    • sum of squared deviations
    • number of scores

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  20. Sample Variance Equation
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  21. Population Standard Deviation
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  22. Sample Standard Deviation
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  23. Definitional Formula
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  24. Computational Formula
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  25. What causes variance to go up?
  26. What causes variances to go down?
  27. How to determine probability of z-score
    Base probability percentage with z-score of normal distribution

    • Example:
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    • What percent scored higher than you on a test?
    • P(z>+1.00)=.1587 (15.87%)
  28. How to find a z-score with that probability
    Example: For a normal distribution, what z-score separated the top 10% from the rest of the distribution?

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    • Z=+1.28
  29. Standard error
    • Standard distance between M and Image Upload
    • How well a sample mean estimates its population mean
    • Smaller standard error, better estimation
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  30. Standard Error vs. Standard Deviation
  31. t-Statistic
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  32. Independent t-test
    • A research deisng that uses a separate group of participants for each treatment condition (or for each population)
    • AKA between-subjects deisgn

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    • Estimated Error: Image Upload
    • Pooled Variance: Image Upload
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  33. Dependent t-test
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  34. #38 on Test: On average, what value is expected for the F-ratio if your null hypothesis is true?
  35. Correlation
    A statistical technique that is used to measure and describe a relationship between two variables

    NO manipulation of variables, just looking if 2 variable have a relationship to each other
  36. Positive correlation
    2 variables that you are comparing move in the same direction
  37. Negative correlation
    2 variables that you are comparing move in opposite directions
  38. Parametric test
    • Inferences about population from statistics that you calculated
    • Test hypotheses about population parameters
    • Require a numerical score for each individual
    • Require data measured on an intercal or ratio scale
  39. Nonparametric Tests
    • Do not make statements about relationships to population parameters
    • Data can be measured on nominal or ordinal scales
    • Require fewer assumptions
    • Are less sensitive than parametic tests
Card Set:
PSY 210 Final Study Guide
2012-05-14 21:20:40
statistics psy 210 csulb

statistics final psy 210
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