PSY 210 Final Study Guide

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  1. What is statistics?
    Value that describes a sample
  2. What is population?
    Set of all inividuals of interest in a particular study
  3. What is sample?
    Set of individuals selected from a population, usually inteded to represent the population in a research study
  4. What is parameter?
    A value that describes a population
  5. Independent variable vs. dependent variable
    • Independent variable: the variable being manipulated by the researcher
    • Dependent variable: the one that is observed to assesss the effect of the treatment
  6. Symbolic notations
    • Add all of the scores in the group.

    • Compute inside parentheses first, then square it.

    • Square each score, then add up squared scores.
  7. Frequency distribution
  8. histogram
  9. bar graph
  10. polygraph
  11. Shape of Distribution
    Positively skewed
  12. Shape of Distribution
    Negatively skewed
  13. leptokurtic
  14. platykurtic
  15. Measures of Central Tendency: Mode
    The score or category has the greatest frequency
  16. Measures of Central Tendency: Median
    The score that divides the distibution in half
  17. Measures of Central Tendency: Mean
    Arithmetic average
  18. Which Measure of Central Tendency is most influenced by outliers?
    • Mean
    • Incorporate every score
  19. Variance Equation
    variance = mean squared deviation =

    • sum of squared deviations
    • number of scores

  20. Sample Variance Equation
  21. Population Standard Deviation
  22. Sample Standard Deviation
  23. Definitional Formula
  24. Computational Formula
  25. What causes variance to go up?
  26. What causes variances to go down?
  27. How to determine probability of z-score
    Base probability percentage with z-score of normal distribution

    • Example:
    • Given:
    • What percent scored higher than you on a test?
    • P(z>+1.00)=.1587 (15.87%)
  28. How to find a z-score with that probability
    Example: For a normal distribution, what z-score separated the top 10% from the rest of the distribution?

    • Z=+1.28
  29. Standard error
    • Standard distance between M and
    • How well a sample mean estimates its population mean
    • Smaller standard error, better estimation

  30. Standard Error vs. Standard Deviation
  31. t-Statistic

  32. Independent t-test
    • A research deisng that uses a separate group of participants for each treatment condition (or for each population)
    • AKA between-subjects deisgn

    • Estimated Error:
    • Pooled Variance:
  33. Dependent t-test

  34. #38 on Test: On average, what value is expected for the F-ratio if your null hypothesis is true?
  35. Correlation
    A statistical technique that is used to measure and describe a relationship between two variables

    NO manipulation of variables, just looking if 2 variable have a relationship to each other
  36. Positive correlation
    2 variables that you are comparing move in the same direction
  37. Negative correlation
    2 variables that you are comparing move in opposite directions
  38. Parametric test
    • Inferences about population from statistics that you calculated
    • Test hypotheses about population parameters
    • Require a numerical score for each individual
    • Require data measured on an intercal or ratio scale
  39. Nonparametric Tests
    • Do not make statements about relationships to population parameters
    • Data can be measured on nominal or ordinal scales
    • Require fewer assumptions
    • Are less sensitive than parametic tests

Card Set Information

PSY 210 Final Study Guide
2012-05-14 21:20:40
statistics psy 210 csulb

statistics final psy 210
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