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In 1500, what was the main religious faith in England?
Why did people pay the church for "indulgences"?
Indulgences were purchased from the church to purge people's sins and help their solves move from Purgatory to heaven quickly after they died.
What else could people to help their souls move through Purgatory more quickly?
By having masses said for them after death. Rich people paid the church to have private chapels built, providing the church with another source of income.
At that time, what did people believe happened to the bread and wine used in the mass?
They actually became the blood and body of Christ therefore making priests special.
What were the main criticisms of the church at that time?
- a) It was too wealthy and didn't use its wealth to help the poor.
- b) Bishops and monks lived luxurious lives in the monasteries.
- c)Bishops and priests had several jobs which meant they couldn't help the poor properly.
- d) Some priests never visted their parishes leaving people who couldn't read and write to take services.
- e) Most services were still conducted in Latin. The vast majority of people didn't understand Latin, making it difficult to feel close to God.
Which German monk attacked the Catholic church in 1519?
What was his main criticism?
Luther pinned a list of 95 criticisms to the church door in Wittenburg. His main criticism was that the church accepted money to pray for people's sin (indulgencies)
What was the name given to people who supported Luther?
What did Henry VIII do when he heard of Luther's criticisms?
He published a book defending the Catholic church.
What did henry VIII do in 1534?
He declared himself head of the English church rather than the Pope.
Why did Henry VIII eventaully break away from the Catholic church altogether?
He wanted to divorce Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn. The Pope refused his request.
What did henry do to the monasteries?
He closed them don and sold the land and contents to pay for expensive wars in Europe.
Who became king when Henry died in 1547?
How did Henry ensure continuity of Protestant church in England?
Edward was educated as a Protestant.
What religious policies did Edward introduce?
1547 Chantires dissolved- this was an attack on the belief of Purgatory and the practice of saying prayers for the dead.
1549 Priest were allowed to get married.
1552 A new Protestant Prayer Book was introduced for the Church, with services in Enlish not Latin. Mass was abolished and replaced by a communion the bread and wine only represented Christ, they did not become Christ.
How did this situation chnge when henry died in 1553?
Queen Mary came to the throne. She was a Catholic and determined to return England to being a Catholic country.
Why did Mary become unpopular?
- a) She married Phillip II of Spain, a Catholic king of a rival power.
- b)Between 1555 and 1558 Mary hd 284 Protestants burned to death.
Who became queen when she died in 1558?
Queen Elizabeth I
Why did Elizabeth return England to being a Protestant country?
Nearly everyone wanted to see an end to Catholicism.
What was introduced around 1559 to encourage this?
A Bible written in English.
The Prayer Book that Edward VI established was re-introduced.
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