meatfinal

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meatfinal
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2012-05-14 12:59:30
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meat final
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  1. SKU
    stock keeping unit
  2. Advantage of butcher shop
    shoppers can ask questions pertaining to meat selection, cooking, and serving
  3. convenience store meats are limited to
    vacuum packaged meats
  4. Specialty shops offer
    attractively packaged items with unique palatability characteristics
  5. Type of meat in specialty shops
    country cured hams, jerky, dry sausage, game
  6. Case life for a specific cut is determined by
    • microbial contamination
    • microbial activity
    • met-myoglobin reducing ability
  7. shelf life for tenderloin, ground beef
    1 day
  8. shelf life for chuck, shoulder, round cuts
    2 days
  9. shelf life for loin and rib cuts
    3 days
  10. If cuts are discolored at the sell by date or earlier
    • mark down price
    • discard
  11. Average value deterioration is _____ and _____ for meat department and fresh meat case respectively
    • 3.7%
    • 5.4%
  12. Increasing the shelf life by 1-2 days would save the meat industry
    175 mil - 1 bil annually
  13. Extending the shelf life by assuring that retail cuts have a bright pink-red color can be done by
    delaying the breakdown of lipid
  14. Quality deterioration occurs because of lipid ______ and ______
    oxidation, muscle pigment oxidation
  15. Lipid oxidation rate is effected by
    polyunsaturated fatty acids and membrane bound phospholipids
  16. Unsaturated fatty acids undergo ______ by a ______ mechanism
    auto-oxidation, free-radical
  17. Auto-oxidation of lipids involves
    addition of an oxygen in place of a hydrogen
  18. Lipid _____ radicals undergo reactions which form oxidation products
    peroxy
  19. breakdown of lipid hydroperoxides produces
    aldehydes, ketones, and carbox. acids
  20. ________ reduce or prevent peroxidation
    antioxidants
  21. a natural antioxidant
    rosemary extract
  22. Oxidation of the _____ in muscle causes the change from ______ to ______
    heme iron - oxymyoglobin to metmyoglobin
  23. ____% of surface is oxidized to metmyoglobin
    60
  24. MRA stands for
    metmyoglobin reducing ability
  25. reducing equivalents
    NADH2
  26. ______ and ______ allow iron to remain in the reduced state longer
    MRA and NADH2
  27. Antioxidants for lipids
    Vit. E, Oleoresins
  28. Packages provide
    • protection from product contamination
    • prot. from deterioration
    • product visibility
    • label info
  29. packaging materials vary in
    • gas barrier properties
    • sealability
    • resistance to puncture
    • opacity
    • printability
    • shrinkage properites
    • resistance to oil and other properties
  30. greatest use of packaging is made of the
    copolymer films
  31. copolymer films contain
    3 layers
  32. The addition of non-meat ingredients to whole muscle meat products to improve palatability, case life and retail yield
    enhanced meat
  33. Enhanced meat is also referred to as
    deep marination
  34. In deep marination:
    solutions are injected into the meat product at low levels
  35. deep marination solution ingredients
    water, salt, alkaline phos (WHC), Na orK lactate (antimicro), natural flavors (rosemary, oleoresin)
  36. enhanced meat is used in
    case-ready systems
  37. Standardized ____ and ____ is a prereq for good merchandising
    cutting and nomenclature
  38. Most tender cuts are from the
    loin/rib
  39. Less tender cuts are from the
    leg
  40. names of retail cuts are associated with
    bone structure
  41. URMIS
    Uniform Retail Meat Identity Standards
  42. URMIS provides a ______
    numerical meat cut identification system and standardized nomenclature
  43. The goal of URMIS is to eliminated
    consumer confusion by multiple names
  44. URMIS is maintained by the
    Cooperative Meat Identification Standards Committee
  45. Lack of _____ makes it difficult to identify beef cuts
    bones
  46. Retailer seldom leave more than_____ cm of fat on the surface
    1.25
  47. Labeling is used to communicate
    • price, quantity, sell-by dates
    • species, subprimal and retail cut name
    • proper handling/safety
    • nutritive value
  48. Meat labeling is also used to identify____, _____, or both
    brand, make a claim
  49. Common beef labels (7)
    • Traditional
    • Pasture/Grass fed
    • Natural
    • USDA naturally raised
    • Certified organic
    • Locally raised
    • branded beef
  50. Pasture beef is finished on grass for the last
    4-6 months
  51. According to USDA natural beef is
    does not contain artificial flavors, preservatives, and is minimally processed
  52. Natural beef is confusing to consumers because
    Each branded beef program decides if antibiotics/growth hormones will be used or not
  53. Naturally Raised Beef must meet these standards
    • Raised without growth tech
    • no antibiotics
    • never fed by-products
    • "never ever" claim
  54. Certified Organic must meet guidelines of
    USDA National Organic Program
  55. Standards for Locally Raised Beef
    NONE
  56. Certified Angus beef specification is for
    certification by an Agricultural Marketing Service agent of US Prime and Choice steer heifer carcasses
  57. Cert angus program specs
    • genotypic or phenotypic characteristics
    • practically free of capillary rupture in the ribeye
    • free of dark cutting characteristics
  58. Phenotypic angus beef should be at least ____% black
    51
  59. G1 cert angus beef carcass specs
    • 1. Marbling of modest or higher
    • 2. A maturity lean color and skeletal
    • 3. med or fine marb texture
    • 4. REA of 10 - 16
    • 5. HCW of less than 1000 lbs
    • 6. FT less than 1 inch
    • 7. Mod. thick muscling - wider than long
    • 8. no hump exceeding 2 in in height
  60. Up to 1/3 of all meat is consumed in
    Rest, Hotel, and ints. food service
  61. Restaurant success depends on
    • consumer satisfaction
    • quality/cost of meat
  62. Examples of institutional dining
    Contract food companies - large business buildings, hospitals, schools, airlines
  63. Aspects of institutional dining
    • repeat customers
    • high demands for nutritional offerings
    • demand for unique products
  64. First step in acquisition of meat for food service is
    aquisition-procurement
  65. _____ is the focus of every entree
    menu development
  66. IMPS
    Institutional Meat Purchase Specifications
  67. Specs for many fresh and processed meat items have been developed by
    US Federal Meat Grading Service
  68. NAMP
    North American Meat Processors Association
  69. NAMP has published the _____ and ______
    meat buyer guide, poultry guide
  70. Standardization of meat specifications is based on anatomical guidelines for removal from the carcass and susequent
    trimming of fat and bone and superficial muscles
  71. Numbers for ordering meat range from
    100-800 - beef, lamb, veal, pork, cured/smoked/cooked pork, dried, cooked/smoked beef, beef by products (1700), veal (3000)
  72. Poultry is specified by numbers
    P1000 - P7500
  73. ______ is important is some species to assure eating and cooking qualities
    Quality grade
  74. Standard, Utility and Commercial grades, ______ is needed
    tenderization
  75. Fat is trimmed by ______ based on buyer specifications
    purveyors
  76. Cooking ____ and _____ from a frozen state is common practice
    patties and nuggets
  77. uniformity of size cuts is important because
    • predictable cooking times
    • serving yields
    • serving size
    • meat cost calculation
  78. Size of primal, subprimal cuts, and roasts is governed by
    size of the carcass
  79. portion size of bone-in meats is controlled by
    cutting procedure
  80. Boneless primal and subprimal cuts may be __________ to creat a uniform size
    frozen, tempered, and pressed
  81. Purchasers my specify ____ or ____ but not both
    weight or thickness
  82. standardized weight is beneficial when
    variable degrees of doneness is needed
  83. Standardized thickness results in variation in
    weight
  84. Standardized thickness is beneficial to ______ situations
    banquet/buffet
  85. Meat patty size is controlled by_____ and______
    thickness and weight
  86. Patties are controlled by ______ per unit of _____
    # of patties, weight
  87. In aged beef, desirable tenderness and flavor is achieved at the expense of
    shrinkage
  88. Meat orders are based on projections of
    business volume and type of consumer
  89. Average losses of meat in food service range from
    1/3 to 1/4 of raw weight
  90. Most urgent consideration is meat ____ upon arrival
    temp
  91. Upon arrival in food ind., meat should be
    examined and weighed
  92. _____ meat should be seperated from _____ meat to avoid______
    cured, raw, nitrite absorption
  93. accidental nitrite absorption of raw meat results in
    cure color development
  94. Refrigerators should be free of
    yeast and molds
  95. Humidity should be controlled to prevent
    Surface dehydration
  96. recognized similarites between animal and human diseases
    aristotle, hippocrates, virgil
  97. Meat Inspection Act of 1906 included
    • Antemortem inspection
    • Postmortem Inspection
    • product inspection
    • sanitary environment restrictions
  98. Chicagp press began to focus of sanitation and slaughter of diseased animals in
    1880's
  99. 1890 - Congress passed a law requiring "_____" inspection, but it was _____ product only
    in the piece, export
  100. 1891 - Secretary of Agriculture initiates ______ inspection
    antemortem
  101. _____ meat act of 1919
    horse
  102. Poultry products inspection act was signed into law in
    1957
  103. Humane slaughter act of 1958 was only required for
    those supplying government with meat
  104. _______ and _______ provided for state and federal cooperative program known as the ______ law
    Wholesome Meat Act of 1967, Wholesome Poultry Products Act of 1968, "equal to"
  105. _______ Agreement - TA plants are federally inspected, but staffed by state
    Talmadge-Aiken
  106. Consolidation of federal and state inspection
    Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA)
  107. Texas Meat Inspection Act is administered by
    Texas Department of State Health, Texas State Meat and Poultry Inspection Program, Meat Safety Assurance Unit
  108. Processed Products Inspection Improvement Act of 1987 did what?
    allow processing plants with total quality control programs to receive less than continuous inspection
  109. What prompted a more science-based program for meat inspection?
    • studies and reports between 1980-1995
    • highly publicized e.coli outbreak
  110. In 1996, a major system was incorporated for sanitation
    Pathogen Reduction and HACCP system
  111. Exemptions from federal and state meat inspection include:
    Custom slaughterers, and farmers
  112. What ammendment allowed custom slaughterers to be exempt?
    Curtis Amendment
  113. Who is responsible for administering the federal meat and poultry inspection laws?
    Secretary of USDA
  114. Federal inspections are conducted by
    FSIS - Food Safety and Inspection Service
  115. Federal Inspection programs consist of
    • Examination of animals and carcasses
    • inspection at all stages to assure sanitation
    • verification of SSOP and HACCP
    • product sampling and analysis
    • condemnation of unfit products
    • examination of non-meat ingred. used in formulations
    • application of identification standards for inspected meats
    • ensure proper labeling - prohibit false/deceptive
    • inspection of foreign meat
    • certification of foreign plants that export to US
  116. Cost of meat inspection amounts to ____ per person per year
    $2
  117. Meat inspectors consist of
    Food inspectors (experienced laymen), lab inspectors (trained meat/food scientists), veterinary medical officers
  118. Lay inspectors are trained to assist in ______ and ______ inspection, monitor SSOP HACCP reports, and report to ______
    antemortem, postmortem, veterinarian
  119. Inspection stamps include a _____ number, and _____ ink is used
    establishment, edible
  120. Procedure for Imported meat
    • countries request acceptance
    • investigation of foreign plants
    • certification program established if pass
    • plants are monitored routinely
  121. SSOP are monitored by
    sensory, chemical, or microbiological measures
  122. First applied by Pilsbury Co in 1959 for NASA
    HACCP
  123. 7 HACCP principles
    • Conduct hazard analysis
    • determine critical control points
    • estab critical limits
    • estab. monitoring procedures
    • corrective actions
    • verification procedures
    • record keeping/documentation
  124. in HACCP establishment is responsible for
    • scientific validation of CCPs
    • insuring HACCP function
    • documentation and reassessment plan
  125. ______ also verifies the HACCP plan
    FSIS
  126. A ____ is required for every product produced by an establishment if hazard analysis reveals one or more food safety hazards that are reasonably likely to occur
    plan
  127. The government targets these pathogens for pathogen reduction
    salmonella, E.coli 0157:H7, and listeria monocytogenes
  128. indicator organism for the presence of other food poison organisms
    salmonella
  129. performance standards of this pathogen vary according to species
    salmonella
  130. Standard is _____ for this microorganism and positive test leads to condemnation of the contaminated product and recall
    e.coli
  131. found in ready to eat foods
    listeria monocytogenes
  132. US Condemned animals in antemortem inspection include
    downers, deads, moribund (about to die), comatose, temp above 105 (106 if swine), animals with obvious symptoms of disease
  133. FSIS 5-04 Notice is for
    non-ambulatory disabled cattle
  134. US Suspect consists of
    seriously crippled, reactors to TB test, immature animals, minor epithelioma of the eye or orbital region
  135. Postmortem inspection includes two distinct components
    visual inspection of carcasses and HACCP
  136. Postmortem inspection classifications
    • US Retained - temporary
    • US Inspected and Condemned
    • US Inspected and Passed
    • Passed for Cooking
    • Passed for Refrigeration
  137. Specified Risk Materials (SRM) for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
    cattle 30 months and older - brain, skull, eyes, trigeminal ganglia, spinal cord, vertebral column (excluding tail, transverse processes, and wings of sacrum), and dorsal root ganglia

    for all cattle - tonsils and distal ileum of small intestine
  138. Condemned material remains in the custody of ____ until disposal by approved methods
    inspectors
  139. Condemned material exposed by
    • Rendering - inedible fats, greases oils
    • Tanked - animal feed/fertilizer
    • Incinerated
    • Chemically denatured - kerosene, FD & C #3 dye, diesel, carbolic acid
    • Frozen - held at -10 deg F for five days and sold as animal feed
  140. Processed meat inspection requires ______, _____, _____ and _______ of HACCP plans for every product
    development, implementation, validation, verification
  141. ______ is performed by operations such as cutting, boning, trimming, curing, smoking, rendering, canning, sausage manufacturing, packaging, handling, or storing of meats
    Reinspection
  142. _______ laboratories are equipped to make chemical, microbiological, and other technical determinations
    Regional FSIS inspection
  143. Prepared meat labels must include: (5)
    • Name of product
    • Ingredients statement
    • quantity of contents
    • inspection legend
    • firm's name and address
  144. Kosher means "______"
    properly prepared
  145. Kosher meat must meet requirements of_____ and ____ laws
    Mosaic and Talmudic
  146. ______ is a specially trained scholar of dietary laws and performs the slaughter (kosher meat)
    Shohet
  147. ______ is the term for meats that meet req. for Islamic food laws
    Halal
  148. Muslim slaughter procedure
    • performed by Muslim of appropriate age
    • "Allah" must be pronounced at the time of slaughter
    • throat is cut in a manner to insure rapid, complete bleeding and death
  149. Processing contributes to
    preservation, convenience, appearance, palatability, variety, and safety
  150. salt impurity
    saltpeter
  151. scientific principles were applied to processing in the
    19th century
  152. ______ has changed the types of meat products made
    refrigeration
  153. Oldest form of processed meat
    • 1500 BC Babylonians and Chinese
    • 8th century BC - Homer's Odyssey
  154. A sausage is any meat that is
    chopped, seasoned, and formed into a symmetcrial shape
  155. USDA classification of sausages
    • Fresh
    • Uncooked smoked
    • cooked smoked - polish/german style
    • cooked - hotdogs
    • dry/semi dry - pepperoni, summer sausage
    • luncheon meat, loaves & jellied
  156. Curing is the addition of
    salt, sugar, and nitrate
  157. % salt in a brine solutions is expressed as
    degrees brine
  158. Sugar cure is
    a mixture containing dextrose, sucrose, or both
  159. _______ is a solution containing sugar cure
    sweet pickle
  160. % brine measures
    % salt
  161. An instrument used to measure the percent salt in a solution
    Salometer
  162. A Salometer measures ______
    specific gravity or density of a solution
  163. Percent pump is
    amount of brine or pickle injected into a product in relation to the fresh or uncured product weight
  164. Purpose of salt
    • Flavor
    • Antimicrobial
    • enhance distribution of cure
  165. Purpose of sugar
    • Flavor
    • Counteract harshness of salt
    • energy source for bacteria during fermentation
  166. Purpose of nitrates or nitrites
    • Flavor - prevent warmed over flavor
    • retard rancidity - inhibit clost. bot
    • cured pink color
  167. ________ produces a deadly neurotoxin
    clostridium botulinum
  168. Purpose of phosphates
    increases water holding capacity
  169. USDA allows up to ___% phosphates in pickle, but not more than ___% in finished product
    5, .5
  170. Purpose of Ascorbates and Erythorbates
    Cure reaction accelerators
  171. What is added to ham to increase water holding capacity and weight?
    phosphate water
  172. tropical aromatics
    spices
  173. temperate zone spices
    herbs
  174. Flavor, quality, and strenght variation in spices is due to
    climate, soils, raising/harvesting methods, storage conditions
  175. Natural seasoning quality is judged by
    essential oil content
  176. essential oil content in seasonings
    increase shelf life
  177. The _____ the particle size of seasonings, the maximum the flavor
    smaller
  178. Ground spices are passed though natural ______ that have a certain number of openings per square inch
    sieves
  179. _____ unlocks natural flavor in seasonings
    fineness
  180. ______ spices add color
    pigmental
  181. Volitile aromatic fraction of a spice
    Essential oils
  182. Essential oils are derived by ______
    steam distillation
  183. Essential oils are made up of
    hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters, aldehydes, and ketones, and a non-volatile residue (wax)
  184. main aroma carrier in essential oils
    oxygen compound
  185. ______ contribute to odor and flavor value of essential oils
    hydrocarbons
  186. ______ in essential oils are easily oxidized by light and air
    hydrocarbons
  187. Derived by solvent extraction of spices, contains volatile and non-volatile
    Oleoresins
  188. Solvents used for extraction of spices
    acetone, ethanol, alcohol
  189. Properties of oleoresin
    • natural antioxidants
    • free from bacteria
    • do not mold
    • less bulk
    • not visible
  190. What do you add to oleoresins to make them water soluble?
    food grade emulsifiers (polysorbate 80), mono and diglycerides, water soluble gums
  191. _________ are soluble carriers of spices which are easy to handle
    Dry soluble or dispersed spices
  192. Casings must be strong, but _____ and _____ while cooking
    shrink and stretch
  193. Artificial casings include
    • cellulose casings - plants
    • collagen casings - by product
  194. 4 types of casings
    • animal
    • regenerated collagen
    • cloth
    • cellulose
  195. Animal casings are processed by
    washing, scraping, and treating with chemicals to remove soluble compounds
  196. animal casings include
    all of GI tract from gullet to anus
  197. Casing GI tract components include
    esophagus, stomach, intestine, APPENDIX, and rectum
  198. Animal casings are processed by
    cleaning, salting, and grading by size
  199. Animal casings contribute to up to ____% of the value of the live animal
    25%
  200. Disadvantages of natural casings
    • costly
    • less uniform in size
    • more fragile
  201. ______ have same properties as animal casings, but more uniform and cleaner
    regenerated collagen
  202. Regenerated collagen casings are prepared from
    corium layer of beef hides
  203. Advantages of regenerated collagen casings
    • more uniform in size
    • stronger
    • aldehyde treatment makes them more versatile than cellulose
    • wide variety of sizes
  204. Cellulose casings are made from
    cotton bags derived from cotton linters or wood pulp
  205. Advantages of cellulose casings
    • Uniformity, strength, cleanliness, ease of handling
    • can be printed or pigmented
    • come in many sizes and types
  206. Purpose of smoking (6)
    • Aroma and flavor
    • preservation
    • creation of new products
    • dev. of color
    • formation of protective skin
    • protection from oxidation
  207. Two types of smoke
    particle and vapor
  208. Roles of phenols in smoke
    • antioxidants
    • color and flavor
    • bacteriostatic
  209. Role of alcohol in smoke
    • carrier for volatile components
    • slight bacteriocidal effect
    • least important
  210. most common alcohol in smoke
    methanol
  211. Role of organic acids in smoke
    skin formation, red color
  212. the 1-4 carbon acids are found in the ____ phase of smoke
    vapor phase
  213. 5-10 carbon acids are found in the ____ phase of smoke
    particle
  214. Most important to smoke color, flavor, and aroma
    carbonyls
  215. Carbonyls occur in the steam distillable fraction and _____ phase
    particle
  216. Steam distillable fraction has more characteristic _____ and contains all of the ______ for the carbonyl compounds
    aroma, color
  217. ______ are part of the particle phase of smoke and are recognized as carcinogens
    hydrocarbons
  218. In smoke, oxygen, CO2 and CO may react with ______ and affect _____
    pigments, color
  219. This gas is of the most concern when smoking meat
    nitrous oxide
  220. Nitrous oxide is linked to the formation of ______ in smoked foods
    nitrosamines and nitrites
  221. Liquid smoke is prepared by _______ of hardwood sawdust
    pyrolysis
  222. In liquid smoke, the smoke is captured by water by drawing it ________ to water in an __________
    countercurrent, absorption tower
  223. While capturing smoke in water, the water is _____ to the desired concentration
    recycled
  224. Smoke/ water solution is aged in order to
    allow polymerization and tar precipitation
  225. Liquid smoke is filtered through cellulose pulp filter to remove
    hydrocarbons
  226. The final product of liquid smoke consists of primarily _____ phase components such as:______, _______, _______, ______
    • vapor
    • phenols, organic acids, alcohols, carbonyls
  227. Nutritional concerns of people today
    • limiting fat
    • cholesterol
    • high blood pressure
    • vitamins and minerals
    • losing weight
  228. Percent daily values from 3 oz of lean beef
    • Protein - 50
    • Phos - 20
    • Riboflavin - 12
    • B-6 - 18
    • Zinc - 32
    • Thiamin - 6
    • Niacin - 19
    • B12 - 15
    • Iron 15
  229. Ground beef contains ______% fat
    4-27%
  230. Fat % in prime, choice, select, and stnd
    8-12, 4-8, 2-3, 1-2
  231. Ounce for ounce, beef can be just as lean as
    chicken
  232. Average roast today has _____% less fat than 10 years ago
    30
  233. How to control leanness of beef
    • buy cuts from loin or round
    • 90% lean ground beef
    • trim visible fat
    • use low fat cookiing methods
    • serve reasonable portion sizes
  234. Trimming visible fat from cuts prior to cooking will reduce fat by
    50%
  235. Daily caloric intake/fat for most sedentary women and older adults
    1600 cal/ 53 g fat
  236. Calories/fat for children, teenage girls, active women, sedentary men
    2200/ 73 g
  237. Calories/ fat for teenage boys, active men, and some active females
    2800/ 93 g
  238. The US Centers for Disease Control estimates that approx ________ toddlers, _______ women have iron deficiencies
    • 700,000
    • 7.8 million
  239. Iron from beef is called_____ iron and is more easily used by the body than _____ iron
    heme iron, plant iron
  240. Zinc is related to _______ function
    enzyme
  241. Zinc is important for
    cell replication, hormone activity, and immune system resistance
  242. Phosphorus is needed for
    • Strong bones/teeth
    • mineral balance
  243. B- complex vitamins are most abundant in ____ meat
    red
  244. _____ is not found in plants
    b12
  245. Meat supplies these b-complex vitamins
    B6, B12, riboflavin, niacin
  246. Nitrate/Nitrite allowances for bacon:
    • pumped: ingoing 120
    • cvr pickle ingoing: 200
    • residual 40 ppm
    • no NO3 allowed
  247. Nitrate/Nitrite allowances for cooked sausage
    • ingoing 156 ppm
    • residual 100 ppm
    • no NO3
  248. _______ is formed by breakdown of nitrite
    nitrous acid
  249. Dimethylamine and nitrous acid yield _____
    Dimethylnitrosamine
  250. ______ have been shown to be carcinogenic
    Nitrosamines
  251. Delaney Amendment of the Pure Food and Drug Act says that
    Food additives that cause cancer must be removed from the food supply
  252. Scorching bacon promotes
    nitrosamine formation
  253. _______ is the nitrosamine of concern in bacon
    N - nitrosopyrolidine
  254. ______ and ______ reduces formation of nitrosamines
    Erythorbate, ascorbic acid
  255. Sodium causes hypertension in ___% of Americans
    20
  256. ____ is a salt substitute
    KCL
  257. Reduced sodium must be ____ less sodium for labeling
    1/3
  258. KCl must not exceed ___% because of _____
    50, flavor
  259. Normal salt formulation for 34-35% reduction
    60% NaCl 40% KCl
  260. KCl reduces
    blood pressure
  261. Cholesterol occurs as free (______) or combined with a fatty acid (_______)
    non-esterified, esterified
  262. Lean beef, pork, lamb has _____mg/ 100 g of cholesterol, (___% in non esterified)
    70-75, 90
  263. Blood cholesterol levels are related to
    coronary heart disease
  264. Fat has ____ times as much energy as protein or carbs
    2.25
  265. Essential fatty acids are
    Linolenic, linoleic, and arachidonic
  266. Other factors of high cholesterol levels that are not accounted for in most studies
    heredity, lack of exercise, obesity, smoking

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