Chapter 4 (Part 1)

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Author:
HunniAngel
ID:
153837
Filename:
Chapter 4 (Part 1)
Updated:
2013-01-17 20:37:30
Tags:
Body Planes Regions
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Description:
Cross Sectional Anatomy
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  1. Anatomic position
    describes the body assuming that the individual is standing in the standard position that includes:

    1. Standing straight up so that the body is erect and facing forward

    2. Holding the arms at the sides with the hands turned toward the front.
  2. Body Planes
    imaginary vertical and horizontal lines used to divide the body into sections for descriptive purposes
  3. Vertical plane
    is an up and down plane that is right angle to the horizon
  4. Midsagittal plane: aka the midline divides the body into equal left and right halves

    Sagittal plane: is a vertical pane that divides the body into unequal left and right halves.
  5. Frontal plane: is a vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions (aka coronal plane)
  6. Transverse plane: a horizontal plane that divides the body into superior and inferior portions. A transverse plane can be at the waist or at any other level across the body.
  7. Ventral: refers to the front, or belly side, of the organ or body (ventr means belly side of the body, -al means pertaining to.)

    ALSO

    Anterior: means situated in the front. It also means on the front or forward part of an organ (anter means front or before, -ior means pertaining to.)
  8. Dorsal: refers to the back of the organ or body (dors means back of the body, and -al means pertaining to)

    ALSO

    Posterior: means situated in the back. It also means the back part of an organ (poster means back or toward the back, and -ior means pertaining to)
  9. Superior: means uppermost, above, or toward the head.
  10. Inferior: means lowermost, below, or toward the feet.
  11. Cephalic: towards the head (cephal means head and -ic means pertaining to.)
  12. Caudal: means toward the lower part of the body (caud means tail or lower part of the body and -al means pertaining to)
  13. Proximal: means situated nearest the midline or beginning of a body structure
  14. Distal: means situated farthest formt he midline or beginning of a body part.
  15. Medial: means the direction toward, or nearer, the midline
  16. Lateral: means the direction toward or nearer the side away fromt he midline. (i.e. the thumb is lateral to the little finger)
  17. Thoracic cavity: aka chest cavity or thorax, surrounds and protects the heart and lungs. The diaphragm is a muscle that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities.
  18. Ventral cavity: is located along the front of the body, contains the body organs that maintain homeostasis.
  19. What is homeostasis?
    the process through which the body maintains a constant internal environment
  20. Abdominal cavity: contains primarily the major organs of digestion. This cavity is frequently rferred to simply as the abdomen.
  21. Pelvic cavity: th space formed by the hip bones and it contains primarily the organs of the reproductive and excretory systems.
  22. Abdominopelvic cavity: there is no physical division between the abdominal and pelvic cavities. The term abdominopelvic cavity refers to these two cavities as a single unit.
  23. Dorsal cavity: located along the back of the body and head, contains organs of the nervous system that coordinate body functions and is divided into two portions
  24. Cranial cavity: located within the skull, surrounds and protects the brain
  25. Spinal cavity: located with the spinal colum, surrounds and protects the spinal cord
  26. What does inguinal mean?
    Relating to the groin, refers to the entire lower area of the abdomen. This includes the groin which is the crease at the junction of the trunk with the upper end of the thigh.
  27. Left hypochondraic region
  28. Right hypochondriac region
  29. Hypochondriac regions
    located on the left and right sides of the body and are covered by the lower ribs (hypo means below, chondr/i means cartilage, and -ic means pertaining to.)
  30. Epigastric region: located above the stomach (epi- means above, gastr means stomach, and -ic means pertaining to)
  31. Left lumbar region
  32. Right lumbar region
  33. Lumbar regions
    located on the left and ride sides near the inward curve of the spine (lumb means lower back and -ar means pertaining to)
  34. Umbilical region: surrounds the umbilicus which is commonly known as the belly button or navel. This pit in the center of the abdominal wall marks the point where the unbilical cord was attached at birth.
  35. Left iliac region
  36. Right iliac region
  37. Iliac Regions
    located on the left and right sides over the hip bones (ili means hip and -ac means pertaining to)
  38. Hypogastric region: located below the stomach (hypo- means below, gastr means stomach, and -ic means pertaining to)

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