Patho 2 Unit 4-5

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Author:
jaredseehawer
ID:
153888
Filename:
Patho 2 Unit 4-5
Updated:
2012-05-15 00:31:49
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bio347
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MigrainThis is the last group of material for test 2. slides "Insulin Resistance" through "Tension Headache"
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  1. With insulin resistance, insulin sensitivity in target tissues (increase/decrease) and serum insulin levels (increase/decrease).
    Insulin sensitivity in target tissues decreases and serum insulin levels become elevated.
  2. What 2 ways is insulin resistance demonstrated?
    Decrease in number of insulin receptors

    Binding of insulin to receptor doesn't result in GLUT
  3. What are soome results of insulin resistance?
    Insulin doesn't result in uptake of glucose

    More persistant high blood sugar

    Prolonges stimulation of beta cells
  4. ____% of type II diabetics are obese.
    80%
  5. What's the deference in insulin levels in diabetic and nondiabetic fat people?
    Nondiabetic and diabetic fat people both exhibit insulin resistance.

    Nondiabetic fatties have hyperinsulinemia.

    Diabetic fatties have relative hypoinsulinemia.
  6. A _____ factor is definitely involved in the pathogenesis of Type II diabetes mellitus.
    Genetic
  7. Insulin resistance in frequently associated with ____ and stresses the ____ cells.
    Obesity

    Beta cells
  8. Type II diabetes mellitus is a complex, _______ disorder.
    Multifactorial

    Involving imparied insulin release and insulin resistance
  9. What are the 2 common problems associtaed with hyperglycemia?
    Nonenzymatic glycosylation

    Intracellular hyperglycemia (disturbances in cells that don't require insulin)
  10. What are the insulin independent cell types?
    Neurons

    Lens

    RBCs

    Kidney

    Gut lining
  11. What are the cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes?
    Atherosclerotic lesions (CAD, cerebrovascular accidents)

    Microangiopathy

    Diabetics have increased incidence of HTN
  12. What are the different renal complications with diabetes?
    Glomeruloscerlosis

    Microangiopathy: diffuse thickening in basement membrane of vessel

    Pyelonephritis

    UTI
  13. _____ is the leading cause of blindness in the USA?
    Diabetes
  14. What are complications involving the eyes with diabetes?
    Retinopathy

    Glaucoma: obstruction of aqueous outflow

    Cataracts: deposits of sugar in lens
  15. What are the different complications of the nervous system with diabetes?
    Microangiopathy

    Stroke (atherosclerosis of cerebral a.)

    Peripheral neuropathy
  16. What are the 4 common clinical features of diabetes?
    Polyuria

    Polydipsia

    Polyphagia

    Predisposition to infection
  17. What protects the CNS?
    Skull and vertebrae
  18. What seperates the CNS?
    Blood-Brain Barrier
  19. What surrounds the CNS?
    CSF
  20. What are common signs and symptoms of neurologic disorders?
    Headache

    Cerebral edema

    Increase intracranial pressure + herniation

    Hydrocephalus

    Decrease level of consciousness

    Seizure
  21. What are the 3 types of primary headaches?
    Migraine

    Tension

    Cluster
  22. What's a secondary headache?
    A headache that is accociated with an identifiable underlying cause
  23. Who are migrain headaches most common in?
    Women between 20 and 45
  24. Describe the pathogenesis of migraines
    Vessels contrict and then dilate (can be caused by caffeine)

    Secreased seratonin is a factor

    Can be triggered by foods in some people
  25. What are the clinical signs of migrains?
    Severe, throbbing headache

    Nausea

    Sensitivity to light

    Unilateral

    Preceded by aura (visual blurring and stuff)
  26. What is a tension headache?
    Associated with pericranial m. spasm which leads to decreased flow and m. ischemia

    Episodic, non-pulsating, bilateral, not aggravated by activity

    Stress management, OTC drugs

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