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With insulin resistance, insulin sensitivity in target tissues (increase/decrease) and serum insulin levels (increase/decrease).
Insulin sensitivity in target tissues decreases and serum insulin levels become elevated.
What 2 ways is insulin resistance demonstrated?
Decrease in number of insulin receptors
Binding of insulin to receptor doesn't result in GLUT
What are soome results of insulin resistance?
Insulin doesn't result in uptake of glucose
More persistant high blood sugar
Prolonges stimulation of beta cells
____% of type II diabetics are obese.
What's the deference in insulin levels in diabetic and nondiabetic fat people?
Nondiabetic and diabetic fat people both exhibit insulin resistance.
Nondiabetic fatties have hyperinsulinemia.
Diabetic fatties have relative hypoinsulinemia.
A _____ factor is definitely involved in the pathogenesis of Type II diabetes mellitus.
Insulin resistance in frequently associated with ____ and stresses the ____ cells.
Type II diabetes mellitus is a complex, _______ disorder.
Involving imparied insulin release and insulin resistance
What are the 2 common problems associtaed with hyperglycemia?
Intracellular hyperglycemia (disturbances in cells that don't require insulin)
What are the insulin independent cell types?
What are the cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes?
Atherosclerotic lesions (CAD, cerebrovascular accidents)
Diabetics have increased incidence of HTN
What are the different renal complications with diabetes?
Microangiopathy: diffuse thickening in basement membrane of vessel
_____ is the leading cause of blindness in the USA?
What are complications involving the eyes with diabetes?
Glaucoma: obstruction of aqueous outflow
Cataracts: deposits of sugar in lens
What are the different complications of the nervous system with diabetes?
Stroke (atherosclerosis of cerebral a.)
What are the 4 common clinical features of diabetes?
Predisposition to infection
What protects the CNS?
Skull and vertebrae
What seperates the CNS?
What surrounds the CNS?
What are common signs and symptoms of neurologic disorders?
Increase intracranial pressure + herniation
Decrease level of consciousness
What are the 3 types of primary headaches?
What's a secondary headache?
A headache that is accociated with an identifiable underlying cause
Who are migrain headaches most common in?
Women between 20 and 45
Describe the pathogenesis of migraines
Vessels contrict and then dilate (can be caused by caffeine)
Secreased seratonin is a factor
Can be triggered by foods in some people
What are the clinical signs of migrains?
Severe, throbbing headache
Sensitivity to light
Preceded by aura (visual blurring and stuff)
What is a tension headache?
Associated with pericranial m. spasm which leads to decreased flow and m. ischemia
Episodic, non-pulsating, bilateral, not aggravated by activity
Stress management, OTC drugs