Living Environment Genetics
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What is the relationship between genes and traits?
Genes determine the traits an offspring will have
What is the size order of things that deal with DNA from largest to sallest?
Cell, nucleus, chromosome, genes, and DNA
How many parents are involved in asexual reproduction
How parents are involved in sexual reproduction
What is different about the genes in a sex cell (egg and sperm) compared to a body cell?
Body cells hae two matching chromosomes where a sex cell has only one single chromosome for each standard pair, resulting in half the gentic material.
What is genetic recombination?
Uniting a sperm and egg into a full cell with a complete set of chromosomes and genes and DNA.
What are the three things that make up a nucleotide?
- A sugar
- A base (Adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine)
What is the difference between the four nucleotides?
The bases they contain. Adenine (A) always matches with thymine (T), and guanine (G), always matches with cytosine (C).
What makes genes different from each other?
The order of the base pairs in the strand of DNA.
What des replicate mean?
What is the importance of weak bonds between the bases in DNA replication?
They make a template, or a pattern, for a new molecule.
What does replication produce?
Two molecules with the exact same DNA, or genetic information.
What are protein molecules made of?
Long chinas that are made of only twenty different amino acids.
What do the sequence of amino acids influence?
The amino acid sequence is infulenced by the DNA, and the amino acid sequence determines the shape, which ultimately makes the function for the protein.
What are some functions of protiens?
- To regulate reactions
- Determine traits
- Become organelles
- Many more!
Why do parents and children share many of the smae proteins?
The offspring inherit the same genetic information as the parent.
What are the steps to protein synthesis?
- DNA unzips
- Bases match up (UGAC) to form mRNA.
- The mRNA travels from the nucleus to the ribosome.
- The ribosome uses tRNA to brings over aminoacids, which are then bonded in an order to go out and function.
What are alterations in the DNA?
Random mutations. Everyone has mutated genes, but some of them are unimportant or do not show.
Why is it dangerous for your gonads to be exposed to things that cause mutations?
The mutations can be inherited by the offspring, and will be passed down for generations.
How does the code in one body cell compare to another?
They are genetically idential. Through differentiation, the cells cover up certain traits that are unneeded, which make cells have different functions.
Why does a Himilayan rabbits fur change in colder temperatures? Why do twins still look and act different if they have the same genetic code?
Their genes are influenced by the environment. That is why twins are different from each other.
What is selective breeding?
Choosing animals with desired traits to mate and produce offspring with these desired traits. Unfortunately, the traits don't always show, and it decreases diversity within species.
What are two ways that enzymes are used in gene manipulation?
Enzymes can cut out specific segments of DNA, and they can copy DNA segments.
What have scientists been able to get bacteria to do?
Make proteins that are in demand for people with diseases like diabetes, and peple can get more insulin.
How has health care benefited from our knowledge of genes?
We now know how to locate specific geneteic disorders and in some cases, help to cure them. We can also diagnose diseases very early.
What does gel electrophoresis do?
It separates DNA based on its size.
What is gel electrophoresis? What are the steps?
Using a well, polace DNA inside. Turning on a power supply makes the gell positive on one end and negative on the other. Since the DNA is negatively charged, it will move to the positive end. The maller pieces move much faster and farther in the gel than the long and large ones.
What enzyme is used to cut the DNA in gel electrophoresis?
A restrictor enzyme.
What does the gel form with the DNA?
It forms genetic bands that we can see in the gel.
What is gel electrophoresis used for?
Detect diseases like sickle cell anemia, see similarities in species, and determine was amials are being poached.
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