anatomy two

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localconfusion
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15390
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anatomy two
Updated:
2010-04-20 16:19:48
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anatomy kidneys lypmph
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anatomy kidneys lymph
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  1. Each empties lymph into venous circulation at the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins
    Thoracic duct
  2. beginning of Thoracic duct
    Receives from 2 lumbar trunks and intestinal trunk
    Cisterna Chyli
  3. Lymph is propelled by
    Pulsations of nearby arteries •Contractions of smooth muscle in the walls of the lymphatics •Valves keep unidirectional
  4. circulate continuously among the blood, lymph nodes, and lymphatic stream
    T cells
  5. Reticular cells produce BLANK that supports other cells in lymphoid organs
    stroma
  6. produce stroma that supports other cells in lymphoid organs
    Reticular cells
  7. composed of dendritic and B cells, Where B cells proliferate and their progeny produce antibodies
    Germinal center
  8. solid, spherical bodies of tightly packed reticular elements and cells
    Lymphatic follicles (nodules)
  9. Embedded in connective tissue, in clusters along lymphatic vessels
    lymph nodes
  10. macrophages destroy microorganisms and debris
    Filter lymph
  11. lymphocytes are activated and mount an attack (against antigens)
    Immune system
  12. nearly encapsulate the lymph follicles
    Dendritic cells
  13. extend inward and divide the lymph node into compartments
    Trabeculae
  14. Two histologically distinct regions of lymph node
    Cortex and medulla
  15. houses T cells in transit
    deep cortex
  16. contains follicles with germinal centers, heavy with dividing B cells
    Cortex
  17. BLANK extend inward from the cortex and contain B cells, T cells, and plasma cells
    BLANK contain macrophages, lymph flows freely
    • Medulla
    • Medullary Cords
    • Medullary Sinuses
  18. Site of lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance and response
    •Cleanses the blood of aged cells and platelets and debris
    •Stores breakdown products of RBCs (e.g., iron) for later reuse
    •Stores blood platelets
    spleen
  19. two distinct areas of spleen
    red pulp and white pulp
  20. in venous sinuses and splenic cords
    •Rich in macrophages for disposal of worn-out RBCs and bloodborne pathogens
    red pulp
  21. around central arteries
    •Mostly lymphocytes on reticular fibers and involved in immune functions
    white pulp
  22. Differs from other lymphoid organs:
    1. It functions strictly in T lymphocyte maturation & immunocompetence
    2. It does not directly fight target molecules (antigens)
    •The stroma consists of star-shaped epithelial cells (not reticular fibers)
    thymus
  23. contains densely packed lymphocytes and scattered macrophages
    cortex of thymus
  24. contains thymic (Hassall’s) corpuscles involved in regulatory T cell development (+fewer lymphocytes)
    medulla of thymus
  25. Simplest lymphoid organs
    •Form a ring of lymphatic tissue around the pharynx
    tonsils
  26. Epithelial tissue overlying tonsil masses invaginates, forming
    tonsillar crypts
  27. trap and destroy bacteria and particulate matter
    tonsillar crypts
  28. concave point of tubular entry into kidneys
    hilus
  29. Fibrous protective layer (covered with fat)
    Capsule
  30. Outer portion of kidney
    cortex
  31. Inner portion of kidney
    Collection of Pyramids
    Medulla
  32. Functional areas of kidney
    Production of urine
    Look striped
    ~8/kidney
    LOBES
    Separated by BLANK
    • Pyramids
    • Renal Columns
  33. Point of Collecting ducts
    converging to Minor Calyces
    Pupillae
  34. Drainage from Pyramids
    Minor Calyces (calyx)
  35. Collecting duct of several
    pyramids
    2-3/kidney
    major calyx
  36. Funnel from
    Major Calyces to Ureter
    renal pelvis
  37. Off Abdominal Aorta, take ~25% CO
    Renal Arteries
  38. Cortical radiate arteries (to cortex-most blood)
    Interlobular arteries
  39. Blood (plasma) is filtered in
    Glomerulus.
  40. Filtrate is run through tubes lined with cells that either reabsorb wanted substances or add more unwanted substances (to/from other capillaries).
    Nephrons
  41. low pressure, very porous) Wrap around "urine tubes" to add/subtract from urine
    Peritubular Capillaries
  42. Tuft of fenestrated capillaries (filter)
    <3 nm diameter-filtered out
    >5 nm (proteins) stay in blood
    Blood to BLANK
    • Glomerulus
    • Efferent Arteriole
  43. Mostly in cortex
    -Short Loops of Henle
    -Many meandering Peritubular Capillaries
    Cortical Nephrons
  44. at C-M junction
    -Long Loops of Henle
    -Peritubular Capillaries are few, long, & straight-
    Juxamedullary Nephrons
  45. Peritubular Capillaries are few, long, & straight-
    Vasa Recta
  46. Smooth muscle cells withgranules of RENINSense BP-Mechanoreceptors
    Granular Cells
  47. Sense NaCl in Filtrate
    Chemoreceptors
  48. Sense Flow (via reabsorption) & cause constriction and dilation
    Macula Densa

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