MUSIC OF THE WORLD'S CULTURES
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Explain what is meant by Chinese language(s) being “tonal”.
Pitch is used to determine meaning. Each “character” is a whole word.
Define shan’ge and what it is used for.
Traditional folk song for agricultural work, courting, and flirting. Verses trade off between singers, the boys and girls “tease” each other.
These songs help take mind off of work.
Know the eight categories of sound-producing materials
- earth (clay)
Know the two sound-producing materials used in sizhu music
- Silk stringed instrument,
- bamboo-tubed instrument
Describe the instruments in a beiguan ensemble and the purpose of the ensemble
- Instruments: wind and percussion
- purpose: outdoor ritual music (funerals, temples)
Describe the following instruments: pipa, dizi, suona, qin
- Pipa- four stringed, pear shaped lute.
- Dizi- transverse bamboo flute
- suona- double reed instrument
- qin-7 stringed instrument.
Define jingju and qingyi
Jingju- bejing opera. Four expressive meanings: singing, speech, acting, fighting.
Qingyi- a serious heroine known for her vocal prowness and use of stance and gesture.
Name at least three characteristics of Beijing opera
- 1.) Elaborate costumes and makeup
- 2.) Simple scenery and props
- 3.) Has some western musical instruments
- 4.) Expressive percussionist
Define ternary form
ABA- Changes from major to minor in B section
Define “model operas”
Operas that told stories about the Chinese revolution
Name at least two requirements for music in the socialist realist movement
- 1.) Express a Chinese theme
- 2.) Be accessible to ordinary listeners
- 3.) Use full range of techniques
Define/translate Nueva Canción and describe the political
movement it involved
Nueva Cancion means “new song”, and it’s a politically charged folk song. People were standing up for their own culture in the face of oppression.
Know what Victor Jara is known for
He composed Nueva Cancion, among others (like El Aparecido).
Traditional Chile rhythm, which is also their national dance.
Mixture of duple and triple meter. It’s simultaneously ¾ and 6/8
Describe the following instruments: kena and zampoña
Kena- flute you can alter with your voice. Zampona- panpipes
Combining two or more melodies.
Ceremonial panpipe music.
Describe the size of k’antu ensembles and the types of instruments used in them
There are 20-30 dancing players. They panpipes, drums, and triangles.
Know how panpipes are put together and the names for each set of pipes
- There are two sets of pipes, the Irca and the Arca.
- The Irca pipes are “male”, and they are the leaders.
- There are six total Irca pipes.
- The Arca pipes are the “female”, and they are the followers.
- There are seven total Arca pipes.
Explain what is meant by “doubling the melody” in a k’antu
Different sizes of panpipes are used for the ensemble. They are all playing the same melody, but at a parallel octave, 4th and 5th above the main melody.
When the melody is dispersed among two or more voices or instruments.
- Two phrase design
- Vocables “e hehe hehei
- pitch rises to half steps
- overlapping vocal entries
- four differet vocal parts
“Fang Ma Shan’ge”
- Not flexible
- High pitched
- verse-chorus form
- emotional expert vs moral expert
- soft, dreamlike
- traditional and modern instruments
- Silk/bamboo instruments
- Mix of major and minor
- Mix of duple and triple meter
“Qi Cun Lian” VOCAL
- Straight forward lines
- Easy to sing
- Simple melody
- Nasally voice
- doubling melodic line
Sanniang Jiao Zi
- High pitched/nasally
- Two stringed fiddle
- Vocalist and fiddle player track each other closely
- Elaborate percussion when singer rests
- short intro + three main sections
- free-meter coda
- notes play in pairs-same pitch, different technique
- about two friends parting
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