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Give the formula for electron shells
- where n is the energy level
The Bohr model is used for what purpose?
to represent the electron arrangement in an atom for the sake of simplicity
- If the temperatures are high enough, then 1 or more electrons in an atom can gain enough energy to break away from the atom
- it is the energy required to remove the outermost electron from an atom/ion
- 1st ionisation energy: the energy required to remove the outermost electron from one mole of atoms of the element in its gaseous state
SUCCESSIVE IONISATION ENERGIES
- gradually increase for an atom as the charge being formed increases.
- markedly increase when an electron is removed from a shell closer to the nucleus
What type of compounds are transition metals generally?
Core Charge of an Atom?
- the effective positive charge eperienced on the outermost valence electrons in the atom
- =No. of protons in the nucleus - no. inner shell electrons
- Dependant on:
- the number of electrons in the atom
- the shells they are located in
- the charge on the nucleus of the atom
What happens to the atomic radius across a period?
- This is because the outermost electrons are located in the same shell whilst the core charge increases. This causes a slight increase in the nuclear charge 'felt' on the electrons, which pulls them closer towards the nucleus
What happens to the atomic radius down a group
Increases because the outermost electron is located within different energy levels meaning that they are further away so that the effective nuclear charge 'felt' is less
- the electron-attracting power of an atom in a molecule
- Metals have low electronegativity because they only have a few, loosely held electrons in their outermost energy level
- Decreases down a group
- Increases (left to right) across a period
- low ionisation energies- +ve ions attracted to the mobile, delocalised electrons
- High electrical conductivity- due to high mobility
- High thermal conductivity- delocalised electrons vibrate vigorously allowing energy to flow through
- Malleable and ductile- due to non-directional bonding
- Various melting/boiling points-due to strong electrostatic bonding. Number of valence electrons vary the amount of energy needed
- Fairly high density- strong electrostatic bonding & closely packed ions. Varies on no of valence electrons