to represent the electron arrangement in an atom for the sake of simplicity
If the temperatures are high enough, then 1 or more electrons in an atom can gain enough energy to break away from the atom
it is the energy required to remove the outermost electron from an atom/ion
1st ionisation energy: the energy required to remove the outermost electron from one mole of atoms of the element in its gaseous state
SUCCESSIVE IONISATION ENERGIES
gradually increase for an atom as the charge being formed increases.
markedly increase when an electron is removed from a shell closer to the nucleus
What type of compounds are transition metals generally?
Core Charge of an Atom?
the effective positive charge eperienced on the outermost valence electrons in the atom
=No. of protons in the nucleus - no. inner shell electrons
the number of electrons in the atom
the shells they are located in
the charge on the nucleus of the atom
What happens to the atomic radius across a period?
This is because the outermost electrons are located in the same shell whilst the core charge increases. This causes a slight increase in the nuclear charge 'felt' on the electrons, which pulls them closer towards the nucleus
What happens to the atomic radius down a group
Increases because the outermost electron is located within different energy levels meaning that they are further away so that the effective nuclear charge 'felt' is less
the electron-attracting power of an atom in a molecule
Metals have low electronegativity because they only have a few, loosely held electrons in their outermost energy level
Decreases down a group
Increases (left to right) across a period
low ionisation energies- +ve ions attracted to the mobile, delocalised electrons
High electrical conductivity- due to high mobility
High thermal conductivity- delocalised electrons vibrate vigorously allowing energy to flow through
Malleable and ductile- due to non-directional bonding
Various melting/boiling points-due to strong electrostatic bonding. Number of valence electrons vary the amount of energy needed
Fairly high density- strong electrostatic bonding & closely packed ions. Varies on no of valence electrons