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  1. Allegory
    A literary work in which characters, objects, or actions represent abstractions
  2. Alliteration
    The repetition of initial consonant sounds
  3. Allusion
    A reference to another work of literature, person, or event
  4. Ambiguity
    The multiple meanings, either intentional or unintentional, of a word, phrase, sentence, or passage
  5. Anadiplosis
    Repetition of the last word of one clause at the beginning of the following clause
  6. Analogy
    A comparison highlighting a similarity between otherwise dissimilar things
  7. Anaphora
    Repetition of a word or phrase as the beginning of successive clauses
  8. Anecdote
    A brief narrative that focuses on a particular incident or event
  9. Antithesis
    Parallel structure that juxtaposes contrasting ideas
  10. Aphorism
    A brief, cleverly worded statement that makes a wise observation about life
  11. Apostrophe
    A technique by which a writer addresses an inanimate object, an idea, or a person who is either dead or absent
  12. Assonance
    The repetition of similar vowels in the stressed syllables of successive words
  13. Asyndeton
    A construction in which elements are presented in a series without conjunctions
  14. Atmosphere
    The emotional mood created by the entirety of a literary work
  15. Attitude
    The relationship an author has toward his or her subject, and/or his or her audience
  16. Canon
    That which has been accepted as authentic
  17. Chiasmus
    A statement consisting of two parallel parts in which the second part is structurally reversed
  18. Colloquialism
    A word or phrase (including slang) used in everyday conversation and informal writing but that is often inappropriate in formal writing (y'all, ain't)
  19. Conceit
    A fanciful expression, usually in the form of an extended metaphor or surprising analogy between seemingly dissimilar objects
  20. Connotation
    The implied or associative meaning of a word
  21. Consonance
    The repetition of consonants (or consonant patterns) especially at the ends of words
  22. Critique
    An essay or article that gives a critical evaluation (as of a book or play)
  23. Deductive Reasoning
    Reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect)
  24. Denotation
    The literal, dictionary definition of a word
  25. Dialect
    A form of language spoken by people in a particular region or group
  26. Diction
    Word choice
  27. Didactic
    Intended to instruct or teach (often associated with a dry, pompous presentation)
  28. Elegy
    A mournful poem, esp. one lamenting the dead
  29. Epistrophe
    Repetition of the same word or group of words at the ends of successive clauses
  30. Epitaph
    A brief statement written on a tomb or gravestone
  31. Ethos
    The appeal of a text to the credibility and character of the speaker, writer, or narrator
  32. Euphemism
    An indirect, less offensive way of saying something that is considered unpleasant
  33. Exposition
    Background information presented in a literary work
  34. Extended Metaphor
    A metaphor developed at great length, occurring frequently in or throughout a work
  35. Flashback
    A scene or event from the past that appears in a narrative out of chronological order, to fill in information or explain something in the present
  36. Generic Convention
    Describe traditions for each genre. These conventions help to define each genre, for example, they differentiate between an essay and journalistic writing or an autobiography and political writing
  37. Genre
    A major category or type of literature
  38. Homily
    Literally means "sermon," but more informally, it can include any serious talk, speech, or lecture involving moral or spiritual advice
  39. Hyperbole
    A figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express strong emotion, make a point, or evoke humor
  40. Imagery
    Description that appeals to the senses (sight, sound, smell, touch, taste)
  41. Inductive Reasoning
    Reasoning from detailed facts to general principles
  42. Inference
    To draw a reasonable conclusion from the information presented
  43. Invective
    An intensely vehement, highly emotional verbal attack
  44. Irony
    The use of words to convey the opposite of their literal meaning
  45. Isocolon
    Parallel structure in which the parallel elements are similar not only in grammatical structure, but also in length
  46. Jargon
    Vocabulary distinctive to a particular group of people
  47. Juxtaposition
    An act or instance of placing close together or side by side, esp. for comparison or contrast
  48. Litote
    A figure of speech that emphasizes its subject by conscious understatement
  49. Logos
    An appeal based on logic or reason
  50. Loose Sentence
    A type of sentence in which the main idea comes first, followed by dependent grammatical units such as phrases and clauses
  51. Metaphor
    A figure of speech comparing two unlike things without using like or as
  52. Metonymy
    Substituting the name of one object for another object closely associated with it ("The pen [writing] is mightier than the sword [war/fighting].")
  53. Mode of Discourse
    The way in which information is presented in a text. The four traditional modes are narration, description, exposition, and argument.
  54. Mood
    The feeling created in the reader by a literary work or passage
  55. Narrative
    The telling of a story or an account of an event or series of events
  56. Onomatopoeia
    The use of words that imitate sounds
  57. Oxymoron
    A figure of speech consisting of two apparently contradictory terms
  58. Paradox
    A statement or proposition that seems self-contradictory or absurd but in reality expresses a possible truth.
  59. Parallelism
    The use of corresponding grammatical or syntactical forms
  60. Parody
    A humorous imitation of a serious work
  61. Pathos
    Appeal to emotion
  62. Pedantic
    Showing off learning
  63. Periodic Sentence
    Sentence that places the main idea or central complete thought at the end of the sentence, after all introductory elements
  64. Personification
    A figure of speech in which an object or animal is given human feelings, thoughts, or attitudes
  65. Point of View
    The perspective from which a story is told
  66. Prose
    Ordinary speech or writing without rhyme or meter
  67. Realism
    The depiction of people, things, and events as they really are without idealization or exaggeration for effect
  68. Rebuttal
  69. Repetition
    Repeated use of sounds, words, or ideas for effect and emphasis
  70. Rhetoric
    The art of presenting ideas in a clear, effective, and persuasive manner
  71. Rhetorical Question
    A question asked for an effect, not actually requiring an answer
  72. Sarcasm
    Bitter, caustic language that is meant to hurt or ridicule someone or something. It may use verbal irony as a device.
  73. Satire
    Form of literature in which irony, sarcasm, and ridicule are employed to attack human vice and folly
  74. Simile
    A comparison of two unlike things using like or as
  75. Style
    The choices a writer makes
  76. Syllogism
    A three-part deductive argument in which a conclusion is based on a major premise and a minor premise ("All men are mortal
  77. Symbolism
    The use of symbols to represent ideas or qualities
  78. Synecdoche
    A figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole (as hand for sailor), the whole for a part (as the law for police officer), the specific for the general (as cutthroat for assassin), the general for the specific (as thief for pickpocket), or the material for the thing made from it (as steel for sword)
  79. Syntax
    Sentence structure
  80. Theme
    Central idea of a work of literature
  81. Tone
    The writer's or speaker's attitude toward the subject of a story, toward a character, or toward the audience (the readers)
  82. Voice
    Two definitions/uses. One refers to the total "sound" of the writer's style.The second refers to the relationship between a sentence's subject and verb (active and passive).
  83. Zeugma
    The use of a word to modify two or more words, but used for different meanings ("He closed the door and his heart on his lost love.")
  84. Begging the Question
    Often called circular reasoning, occurs when the believability of the evidence depends on the believability of the claim
  85. Non Sequitur
    A statement that does not follow logically from evidence
  86. Post Hoc
    Assuming that an incident that precedes another is the cause of the second incident
  87. Faulty Analogy
    An inaccurate, inappropriate, or misleading comparison between two things
  88. Hasty Generalization
    Drawing conclusions based on insufficient or unrepresentative evidence
  89. Red Herring
    When a writer raises an irrelevant issue to draw attention away from the real issue
  90. Equivocation
    When a writer uses the same term in two different senses in an argument
  91. Ignoring the Question
    Introducing an issue or consideration that shifts the argument away from the real issue
  92. Opposing a Straw Man
    Refuting an oversimplified opposition
  93. Either/Or Reasoning
    False Dilemma
  94. Slippery Slope
    A fallacy that assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented
  95. Bandwagon Appeal
    Suggests that an idea, course of action, a topic is good because many others have done it /are doing it
  96. False Authority
    Fallacy in which a claim is based on the expertise of someone who lacks appropriate credentials
  97. Ad Hominem
    A fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute
  98. Tu Quoque
    Dismissing someone's viewpoint on an issue because he himself is inconsistent in that very thing
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2012-05-15 17:14:38

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