Chapter 2 (Part 2)

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Chapter 2 (Part 2)
2013-01-17 20:39:45
Human Body Health Disease

Medical Terminology
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  1. Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ)
  2. Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ)
  3. Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ)
  4. Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ)
  5. Peritoneum
    Multilayered membrane that protects and holds the organs in place within the abdominal cavity
  6. Parietal peritoneum
    the outer layer of the peritoneum that lines the interior of the abdominal wall
  7. Visceral peritoneum
    the inner layer of the peritoneum that surrounds the organs of the abdominal cavity
  8. Parietal
    means cavity wall
  9. Visceral
    means relating to the internal organs
  10. Mesentary
    fused double layer of the parietal peritoneum that attaches parts of the intestine to the interior abdominal wall
  11. Retroperitoneal
    means located behind the peritoneum (retro- means behind, periton means peritoneum, and -eal means pertaining to)
  12. Peritonitis
    inflammation of the peritoneum
  13. Cytology
    the study of the anatomy, physiology, pathology, and chemistry of the cell
  14. Cell membrane
    the tissue that surrounds and protects the contents of the cell by separating them from its external environment
  15. Cytoplasm
    the material within the cell membrane that isn't part of the nucleus (cyt/o means cell and -plasm means formative material of cells)
  16. Nucleus
    is surrounded by the nuclear membranem is a structure within the cell that has two important functions:

    • 1. it controls the activities of the cell
    • 2. helps the cell divide
  17. Stem cells
    unspecialized cell that are able to renew themselves for long periods of time by cell division
  18. Adult stem cells
    aka somatic stem cells, are undifferentiated cells found among differentiated cells in a tissue or organ
  19. Embryonic stem cells
    are undifferentiated cells that are unlike any specfic adult cell; however, they have the important ability to form any adult cell
  20. Gene
    fundamentl physical and functional unit of heredity. Controls hereditary disorders and all physical traits such as hair, skin, and eye color.
  21. Genetics
    the study og how genes are transferred from parents to their children and the role of genes in health and disease
  22. Dominant gene
    inherited from either parent, the offspring will inherit that genetic condition or characteristic
  23. Recessive gene
    inherited from both parents, the offspring will have that condition. When inherited from only one parent and a normal gene from the other parent, the offspring will not have that condition.
  24. Genome
    the complete set of genetic information of an individual
  25. Chromosomes
    are the gentic structures located within the nucleus of each cell. They are made up of the DNA molecules containing the body's genes.
  26. Genetic mutation
    a change of the sequence of a DNA molecule. Potential causes include exposure to radiation or environmental pollution.
  27. Genetic disorder
    aka heredity disorder, is a pathological condition caused by an absent or defective gene. Some are present at birth others may manifest at any time in life
  28. Cystic fibrosis
    genetic disorder that is present at birth and affects the respiratory and digestive systems.
  29. Down syndrome
    genetic variation that is associated with charateristic facial appearance, learning disabilities, and physical abnormalities such as heart valve disease
  30. Hemophilia
    a group of hereditary bleeding disorders in which blood-clotting factor is missing. This disease is characterized by spontaneous hemorrhages or severe bleeding following an injury
  31. Huntington's disease
    genetic disorder that is passed from parent to child. Each child parent with the gene has a 50-50 chance of inheriting the disease. This condition cause the nerve degeneration with symptoms that most often appear in midlife. This damage eventually results in uncontrolled movements and the loss of mental abilities.
  32. Muscular dystrophy
    term used to describe a group of genetic diseases that are characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles that control movement
  33. Degeneration means
    a worsening condition
  34. Phenylketonuria
    commonly known as PKU, is a genetic disorder in which the essential digestive enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase is missing. PKU can be detected by a blood test performed on infants at birth.
  35. Tay-Schs disease
    a fatal gentic disorder in which harmful quantities of a fatty substance build up in the tissues and nerve cells in the brain. Both parents must carry the gene in order to have a child affected. Babies appear healthy at birth for the first few months. Development then slows and a relentless deterioration of mental and physical abilities results in progressive blindness, paralysis, and early death.
  36. Tissue
    group or layer of specialized cells that join together to perform a certain specific function
  37. What are the 4 main types of tissue?
    • 1. epithelial
    • 2. connective
    • 3. muscle
    • 4. nerve
  38. Histology
    the study of the structure, composition, and function of tissues
  39. Histologist
    a specialist in the study of the prganization of tissues at all levels
  40. Epithelial Tissue
    form a protective covering for all of the internal and external surfaces of teh body. These tissues also form glands
  41. Epithelium
    is the specialized epithelial tissue that forms the epidermis of the skin and the surface layer of mucous membrane
  42. Endothelium
    is the specialized epithelial tissue that lines the blood and lymph vessels, body cavities, glands, and organs
  43. Connective tissue
    support and connect organs and other body tissues
  44. Dense connective tissues
    such as bone and cartilage, form the joints and framework of the body
  45. Adipose tissue
    aka fat, provides protective padding, insulation, and support
  46. Loose connective tissue
    surrounds various organs and supports both nerve cells and blood vessels
  47. Liquid connective tissue
    blood and lymp, transport nutrients and waste products throughout the body
  48. Muscle tissue
    contains cells with the specialized ability to contract and relax
  49. Nerve tissue
    contains cells with the specialized ability to react and to conduct electrical impulses
  50. Pathology of Tissue Formation: Incomplete Tissue Formation

    the defective development, or the congenital absence, of an organ or tissue (a-means without and -plasia means formation.
  51. Pathology of Tissue Formation: Incomplete Tissue Formation

    the incomplete development of an organ or tissue usually due to deficiency in the number of cells (hypo- means below and -plasia means formation)
  52. Pathology of Tissue Formation: Abnormal Tissue Formation

    a change int he structure of the cells in their orientation to each other (ana- means excessive and -plasia means formation.) This abnormal cell development is characteristic of tumor formation in cancer.
  53. Pathology of Tissue Formation: Abnormal Tissue Formation

    abnormal development or growth of cells, tissues, or organs (dys- means bad and -plasia means formation.)
  54. Pathology of Tissue Formation: Abnormal Tissue Formation

    the enlargement of an organ or tissue because of an abnormal increase in the number of cells in the tissue (hyper- means excessive and -plasia means formation)
  55. Pathology of Tissue Formation: Abnormal Tissue Formation

    a general increase in the bulk of a body part that is due to an increase in size, but not number, of cells in tissue (hyper- means excessive and -trophy means development.)
  56. Gland
    a group of specialized epithelial cells that are capable of producing secretions.
  57. Exocrine gland
    such as a sweat gland, secret chemical substances into ducts that lead either to other organs or out the body (exo- means out and -crine means to secrete.(
  58. Endocrine gland
    produces hormones, don't have ducts. These hormones are secreted directly into the bloodstream, which are then transported to other organs and structures throughout the body (endo- means within and -crine means to secrete)
  59. Adenitis
    the inflammation of a gland (aden- means glad and -itis means inflammation)
  60. Adenocarcinoma
    a malgnant tumor that orginates in glandular tissue (aden/o means glad and -carcin means cancerous and -oma means tumor)
  61. Adenoma
    a benign tumor that arise in, or resembles, glandular tissue (aden- means gland and -oma means tumor)
  62. Adenomalacia
    is the abnormal softening of a gland (aden/o means gland and -malacia means abnormal softening)
  63. Adenosis
    any disease condition of a gland (aden- means gland and -osis means an abnormal condition or disease)
  64. Adenosclerosis
    is the abnormal hardening of a gland (aden/o means gland and -sclerosis means abnormal hardening)
  65. Adenectomy
    the surgical removal of a gland (aden- means gland and -ectomy means surgical removal)
  66. Pathology
    the study of the nature and cause of disease that involves changes in structure and function.
  67. Pathologist
    specializes in the laboratory analysis of tissue samples to confirm or establish diagonsis.
  68. Autopsy
    is a postmortem examination
  69. Etiology
    the study of causes of disease (eti- means cause and -ology means the study of)
  70. Pathogen
    a disease producing microorganism such as a virus
  71. Transmission
    thespread of disease
  72. Contamination
    means that a pathogen is possibly present. Occurs through a lack of proper hygiene and standards or by failure to take appropiate infection control precautions.
  73. Communicable disease
    aka contagious disease, is any condition that is transmitted from one person to anothe either by direct or by indirect contact with contaminated objects
  74. Indirect contact transmission
    refers to situations in which a susceptible person is infected by contact with a contaminated surface
  75. Bloodborne transmission
    the spread od a disease through contact with blood or by other body fluids that are contaminated by blood
  76. Airborne transmission
    occurs through contact with contaminated respiratory droplets spread by a cough or sneeze
  77. Food-borne or waterborne transmission
    aka fecal-oral transmission, is caused by eating or drinking contaminated food or water that hasn't been properly treated to remove contamination or kill pathogens that are present.
  78. Vector-borne transmission
    is the spread of certain diseas due to the bite of a vector.
  79. Epidemiologist
    a specialist in the study of outbreaks of disease withing a population group (epi- means above, dem means population, and -ologist means specialist)
  80. Endemic
    ongoing presence of a disease within a population, group, or area (en- means within, dem means population, and -ic means pertaining to)
  81. Epidemic
    a sudden and widespread outbreak of a disease within a specific population group or area (epi- means above, dem means population, and -ic means pertaining to)
  82. Pandemic
    outbreak of a disease occurring over large geographic areas, possibly worldwide (pan- means entire, dem means population, -ic means pertaining to.)
  83. Functional disorder
    produces symptoms for which no physiological or anatomical cause can be identified
  84. Iatrogenic illness
    unfavorable response due to prescribed medical treatment
  85. Idiopathic disorder
    an illness without known cause (idi/o means peculiar, path means disease, and -ic means pertaining to)
  86. Infectious disease
    an illness cause by living pathogenic organisms
  87. Nosocomial infection
    disease acquired in a hospital or clinical setting
  88. Organic disease
    produces symptoms cause by detectable physical changes in the body
  89. Congential disorder
    an abnormal condition that exsit at the time of birth. Can be cause by a developmental disorder before birthm prenatal influences, or injuries during the birthing process
  90. Developmental disorder
    aka birth defect, can result in an anomaly or malformation such as an absence of a limb or the presence of an extra toe
  91. Anomaly
    a deviation from what is regarded as normal
  92. Atresia
    describes the congential absene of a normal opening or failure of a structure to be tubular
  93. Prenatal influences
    the mother's health, behavior, and the prenatal medical care she does, or doesn't, or receive before delivery
  94. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
    cause by the mother's consumption of alcohol during the pregnancy. Resulting condition of the baby is characterized by physical and behavioral traits, mental retardation, brain damage, and socialization difficulties
  95. Premature birth
    a birth that occurs earlier than 37 weeks of development. Can cause serious health problem because the baby's body systems haven;t had time to form completely
  96. Birth injuries
    congetial disorders that weren't present before teh events surrounding the time of birth
  97. Geriatrics
    the study of medical problems and care of the aged, aka gerontology.
  98. Geriatrician
    a physician who specializes in the care of older people, aka gerontologist