AP Lang Study Guide
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similarity of structure in apair of related words, phrases, or clauses.
example: "His purpose was to impress the ignorant, to perplex the dubious, and to confound the scruplous."
jusxtaposition of contrasting ideas, often in parallel structure, for clarity and power.
example: with malice toward none, with charity toward all..."
inversion of usual word order, particularly to emphasize a point.
ex: "ask not what your country does for you, but what you can do for your country."
insertion of a verbal unit- grammatically unrelated to the sentence - in a position that interrupts the normal syntatical flow of the sentence.
noun-phrase apositive "the smack talker"
a noun phrase intended to indentify, clarify, or amplify the noun it modifies.
"My father, the only pediatrician in a town of 7000, was often called away..."
deliberate omission of words which are implied by context
"and he to england shall along with you.
deliberate omission of conjunctions
"that we shall pay any price, bear any burder, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any for to assure the survival and the success of liberty"
deliberate use of many conjunctions
"i said, who killed him? and he said "i don't know who killed him but he'd dead all right, and it was dark and the there was water..."
repetition of consonant sounds in two or more adjacent words
"pusillanimous pussyfooter...nattering nabos of negatism"
side-by-side placement of coordinate elements
"my father, the only pediatrician in a town of 7000 was often called away - from dinner, from sleep, from our family - to suture some stupid kid who got her hand caught in the car door.
repetition of similar vowel sounds and followed by different consonants
"refresh your zest for living"
repetition of the same word or groups of words at the beginnings of successive clauses.
"we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the feilds and in the streets and we shall fight in the hills."
repetition of the same words at the end of a clause.
"wgeb we furst cane we were many and you were few. now you are many and we are getting very few.
repetition of the last word of one clause at the beginning of the follow clause
"the crime was common, common be the pain."
arrangement of words, phrases or clauses in order of increasing importance
"she was eager to serve her family, her community, and her country."
repetition of words in reverse grammatical order
"you don't ride to get in shape for Quimby; you ride Quimby to get in shape"
the art of persuasion, incorporating the principles and theories having to do with the presentation of facts and ideas in clear, persuasive, and atractive language.
used to convince a reader or hearer by establishing the truth or falsility or a proposition
used to explain the nature of an object, idea or theme
used to recount an event or series of events.
used to establish a scene, setting, or describe action
the character or credebility of the speaker or writer as reflected in the speech or writing itself
the appeal to logic or reasoning
from the greek root for suffering or deep feeling. in rhetoric the quality which appeals to the emotion of the audience or reader
a deductive argument which asserts a major premise, proceeds to a minor premise and reaches a logical conclusion:
man is mortal; socrates is a man; therefore socrates is mortal.
that part of an argument which is assumed true.
Th proposition that must follow logically from the major and minor premise.
attacking a thesis by condemning its background or origin
"you should oppose this bill becasue it was written by the energy companies"
Abusive Ad Hominem
Attacking the character of the opposition instead its background or origin:
"You should oppose this bill because it was written by the energy companies."
Poisoning the Well
Attempting to preclude discussion by attacking the credibility of the opponent:
"This man has lied before; why should we accept his argument now?"
Using emotion-laden language to sway people en masse.
"I appeal to you, the most abused, down-trodden people on earth: rise up and act against your oppressors!"
Appeal to Pity
Seeking to persuage not with evidence but by arousing pity.
"Please officer, don't get me a ticket. My dad will get really, really mad at me!"
Appeal to authority
- Seeing to pursuade not by giving evidence but by merely citing an authority, in the form of
- (1) appeal to the one:
- "Faith Hill is an easy, breezy, beautiful cover girl."
- (2.) appeal to the many (bandwagon appeal):
- "Everybody's wearing it! Why don't you?"
- (3.) appeal to the select few:
- "The Lancia Concept will set you apart from the crowd."(4.) appeal to tradition:
- "Marriage between a man and a woman is as old as human history and must be protected."
Appeal to ignorance
Emphasizing not the evidence for a thesis byt the lack of evidence against it:
"You can't prove there isn't any extra-terrestrial life!"
Appeal to fear
Seeking to persuade through fear:
"If Barack Obama is elected, it won't be long before the terrorists strike us again."
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