# Cumulative Review.txt

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 Author: Maki6tu ID: 154084 Filename: Cumulative Review.txt Updated: 2012-08-02 15:22:20 Tags: Cum Review Folders: Description: Cum. Review 1 Show Answers:

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1. Relationship of static friction and sliding object base area
Independent. There is none.
2. Relationship of kinetic friction and speed over time. (tension and friction forces are constant)
The coefficient of kinetic friction is always lower than that of static friction. Therefore there is a net accelerating force on the block once it starts to slide making speed increase linearly with time.
3. What accounts for N2's boiling point being lower than O2's?
N2 has a lower molecular weight than does O2.
4. As distance increases between transmitter and receiver of sound, wavelength...
Increases
5. Speed relationship between radio and sound waves.
Sound waves travel more slowly.
6. If wavelength decreases, then the object making the sound is...
Getting closer.
7. Pressure in a liquid is proportional to...
Liquid density and depth
8. The pH at the equivalence point of a titration is equal to...
The pH of the salt solution formed.
9. Equivalent mass (equivalent weight)
The mass of an acid that yields one mole of hydrogen ions.

or

The mass of a base that reacts with one mole of hydrogen ions.
10. Calculating mole fraction
The mole fraction is the number of moles of chemical in question divided by the total number of moles for all other species in solution.

mf of A =
11. Partial pressure
Divide the total pressure by number of molecules (including coefficients).

CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O

(maybe products only?)
12. Empirical formula from grams.
Figure out number of moles. Number of moles equals subscript unless it can be reduced. (e.g. 2:4:2 = 1:2:1)
13. Fundamental wavelengths
Open pipe wavelength is 2 times the length of the pipe.

Pipe diameter doesn't matter.
14. (Photoelectric effect) When the number of photons increases...
The number of electrons ejected increases.

Electron energy is based on the energy of the photon.
15. Calculating power dissipated as heat in a resistor
The square of the current (I) times the resistance (R).
16. (Photoelectric effect) Increasing the frequency of each photon...
Increases the speed of the ejected electron.
17. Fusion (phase changes) definition
Melting
18. Plane mirror characteristic
Produces an image behind its plane at a distance equal to the distance of the object being reflected.
19. Equivalent of [H+]
H3O+
20. The autonomic nerve fibers that directly innervate the heart to cause cardiac slowing are:
Parasympathetic motor fibers
21. Amine vs. Amide
• Amine
• Amide
22. Glucagon function
Stimulates gluconeogenisis and release of glucose into the blood.
23. Effect of an impurity on melting points
Slightly lowers and broadens the temperature range of melting.
24. Ether
25. Ester
26. Ketone
27. Relationship between the colon and the appendix
They are connected in such a way that contents may move freely between them.
28. Two aspects of fungal spores
Metabolically inactive

Haploid
29. Cells included in an inflammatory response
• T cells
• B cells
• Other leukocytes
30. Saponification
Saponification is hydrolysis of an ester.
31. Bacterial replication
Fission
32. Organs involved in menstrual cycle
Hypothalamus

Pituitary

Ovary
33. Integumentary system components
Hair, nails, skin, and oil and sweat glands.
34. Integumentary system functions
Thermoregulation, protection, environmental sensory input, excretion, innate immunity, blood reservoir, vitamin D synthesis.
35. Epidermis
36. Dermis
Contains blood vessels, hair follicles, sebaceous glands (oil), sudoriferous glands (sweat), and nerve endings. The dermis is a connective tissue.
37. Musculoskeletal system functions
Body movement, support and stabilization, generation of heat, and maintenance of homeostasis.
38. Skeletal muscle characteristics
Voluntary, striated, and multinucleated.
39. Sarcomere diagram
40. Arrival of the Action Potential
The neuromuscular junction between a skeletal muscle and a motor nerve can ONLY USE ACETYLCHOLINE (ACh) AS THE NEUROTRANSMITTER. The action potential spreads along the sarcolemma and down specialized T-tubules that dive deep into the muscle cell, causing the release of Ca2+.
41. Contraction
• -The default low-energy position for myosin heads is bent. ATP is used to force, or "cock", these myosin heads into a high-energy, straight position.
• -After the "power stroke", ATP binds to the mysoin head again, releasing it from the actin filament.
42. Ca2+ level for contraction
High
43. Ca2+ level for relaxation
Low
44. Effect on sarcomere when no ATP is present
Myosin heads cannot detach from actin and the muscle will remain in a contracted position. (Rigor mortis)
45. Effect on sarcomere when no Ca2+ is present
We do not get rigor, but the inability to contract (a.k.a. "flaccidity")
46. The strength of a contraction depends on:
• 1) Number of motor units being used
• 2) Size of the motor units being used
• 3) Frequency of action potentials (i.e. stimulation)
47. Skeletal muscle important features
• Skeletal muscles store large amounts of glycogen; they also require a lot of oxygen and thus have their own oxygen storage molecule, myoglobin, which is capable of holding one O2 molecule.
• Also mature (differentiated) skeletal muscles are frozen in Go phase and do not divide (similar to neurons)
48. Cardiac muscle characteristics
• Involuntary, striated, one nucleus.
• Unlike skeletal muscles, cardiac cells continue dividing after differentiation.
49. Cardiac muscle contraction mech.
Does contain sarcomeres and uses the same sliding filament mechanism as skeletal muscle.
50. Smooth muscle characteristics
Involuntary, non-striated, one nucleus.
51. Smooth muscle contraction mech.
Smooth muscle is NOT arranged in sarcomeres. Therefore it does not contain troponin. Uses a calcium cascade mechanism instead.
52. Bone functions
Support, protection, movement, mineral storage (calcium and phosphate), energy storage (as fat in the marrow), and blood cell formation.
53. Osteocytes
Mature bone cells surrounded by a mineral matrix.
54. Osteoclasts
Bone cells that break down and resorb bone matrix, releasing the component minerals (Ca2+ and P) back into the blood.
55. Osteoblasts
Immature bone cells that secrete collagen, organic compounds, and minerals forming a bone matrix around themselves. Once they are completely enclosed by matrix, they differentiate into osteocytes.
56. Anatomy of long bone
Two epiphyses (bulbous ends) cushioned by cartilage; the ends are filled with spongy bone and the shaft in between is made of compact bone; the center is a hollow cavity filled with yellow bone marrow.
57. Hydroxyapatite
A compound of calcium, phosphate, and hydroxide. It is the mineral matrix responsible for a bone's strength and is the form in which most all of the body's calcium is stored.
58. Cartilage
• A connective tissue made of collagen.
• No perfusion or innervation
• Found in appendages such as the nose and ears, at the ends of the long bones, between vertebrae, at the rib-sternum (sternocostal) joints, etc.
59. Types of joints
• 1) Fibrous (skull bones)
• 2) Cartilaginous (ribs and sternum)
• 3) Synovial (knee, elbow, etc.)
60. Sperm
Spermatozoa are produced by the testicles in the seminiferous tubules and stored and nurtured in the epididymis. They are a SINGLE, HAPLOID cell consisting of a head (cell body) and tail (flagellum). They contain lots of mitochondria.
61. Ejaculation pathway
Sperm leave the epididymis via the vas deferens. The vas deferens arches back up into the pelvis and then back towards the penis. Along this path seminal vesicles, prostate gland and bulbourethral gland (a.k.a. Cowper's gland) all secrete various lubricants and nutrients into the ejaculate.
62. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) location of synthesis
Anterior pituitary
Peptide and water-soluble
Stimulates the adrenal cortex to release stress hormones called "glucocorticoids".
65. Luteinizing hormone (LH) location of synthesis
Anterior pituitary
66. Luteinizing hormone (LH) class
Peptide and water-soluble
67. Luteinizing hormone (LH) function
Surge in LH causes ovulation; stimulates the secretion of the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone.
68. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) location of synthesis
Anterior pituitary
69. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) class
Peptide and water-soluble
70. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) function
Stimulates growth of the follicle during menstrual cycle and production of sperm.
71. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) location of synthesis
Anterior pituitary
72. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) class
Peptide and water-soluble
73. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) function
Stimulates release of T3/T4 from the thyroid.
74. Human Growth hormone (hGH) location of synthesis
Anterior pituitary
75. Human Growth hormone (hGH) class
Peptide and water-soluble
76. Human Growth hormone (hGH) function
Stimulates growth throughout the body.
77. Prolactin location of synthesis
Anterior pituitary
78. Prolactin class
Peptide and water-soluble
79. Prolactin function
Stimulates milk production in the breasts.
80. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) location of synthesis
Posterior pituitary
Peptide and water-soluble
Causes the collecting duct of the kidney to become highly permeable to water, concentrating the urine.
83. Oxytocin location of synthesis
Posterior pituitary
84. Oxytocin class
Peptide and water-soluble
85. Oxytocin function
Stimulates contractions during childbirth and milk secretion during nursing.
86. Parathyroid hormone location of synthesis
Parathyroid
87. Parathyroid hormone class
Peptide and water-soluble
88. Parathyroid hormone function
Increases blood calcium by stimulating proliferation of osteoclasts, uptake of Ca2+ in the gut, and reabsorption of Ca2+ in the kidney.
89. Insulin location of synthesis
Pancreas
90. Insulin class
Peptide and water-soluble
91. Insulin function
Stimulates uptake and storage of glucose from the blood.
92. Glucagon location of synthesis
Pancreas
93. Glucagon class
Peptide and water-soluble
94. Glucagon function
Stimulates gluconeogenisis and release of glucose into the blood.
95. Calcitonin location of synthesis
Thyroid
96. Calcitonin class
Peptide and water-soluble
97. Calcitonin function
Decreases blood calcium by inhibiting osteoclasts.
98. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) location of synthesis
Egg/placenta
99. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) class
Peptide and water-soluble
100. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) function
Prevents degeneration of the corpeus luteum, maintaining pregnancy.
101. Aldosterone location of synthesis
102. Aldosterone class
Steroid and lipid-soluble
103. Aldosterone function
Increases Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion at the distal convoluted tubule and the collecting duct; net increase in salts in the plasma, increasing osmotic potential and subsequently blood pressure.
104. Cortisol location of synthesis
105. Cortisol class
Steroid and lipid-soluble
106. Cortisol function
A stress hormone; increases gluconeogenesis in the liver and thus blood glucose levels; stimulates fat breakdown.
107. Testosterone location of synthesis
108. Testosterone class
Steroid and lipid-soluble
109. Testosterone function
Stimulates development of secondary sex characteristics and closing of epiphyseal plates.
110. Estrogen location of synthesis
111. Estrogen class
Steroid and lipid-soluble
112. Estrogen function
Stimulates female sex organs; causes LH surge in menstruation.
113. Progesterone location of synthesis
114. Progesterone class
Steroid and lipid-soluble
115. Progesterone function
Stimulates growth and maintenance of uterus during pregnancy.
116. Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxine (T4) location of synthesis
Thyroid
117. Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxine (T4) class
Tyrosine derivative and lipid-soluble
118. Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxine (T4) function
Increases basal metabolic rate, affecting metabolism.
119. Epinephrine & Norepinephrine location of synthesis
120. Epinephrine & Norepinephrine class
Tyrosine derivative and water-soluble
121. Epinephrine & Norepinephrine function
Cause responses almost identical to a sympathetic nervous system response (fight or flight).
122. Hormones that are peptides and water-soluble
ACTH, LH, FSH, TSH, hGH, Prolactin, ADH, Oxytocin, Parathyroid Hormone, Insulin, Glucagon, Calcitonin, hCG
123. Hormones that are steroids and lipid-soluble
Aldosterone, Cortisol, Testosterone, Estrogen, Progesterone
124. Hormones that are tyrosine derivatives
Epinephrine, Norepinephrine, T3, T4
125. Site of lipid synthesis
Endoplasmic reticulum
126. Site of lipid metabolism
Mitochondria
127. Structure of mitochondrion
128. Where cilia is exclusively found in humans
• -Respiratory System (lungs)
• -Nervous System (ependymal cells)
• -Reproductive System (fallopian tubes)
129. Cell cycle
130. Where DNA is found
Nucleus. DNA cannot leave and is only found here. There is however a small amount found in the mitochondria.
131. Nucleolus
Site of rRNA transcription and ribosome assembly.
132. Rough ER
Covered with ribosomes; all proteins not bound for the cytosol are made here.
133. Smooth ER
Lipid synthesis and modification. NOT LIPID METABOLISM.
134. Golgi Apparatus
Cellular "post office;" organize, package, modify, excrete, etc.
135. Mitochondria
Have their own DNA with variations to the nuclear genetic code passed through the maternal line only.

Place of lipid metabolism.

Theory suggests they evolved from aerobic prokaryotes in symbiosis with a eukaryotic cell.
136. Lysosome
• pH of 5
• Digests cell parts
• Fuses with phagocytotic vesicles
• Participates in cell death (apoptosis)
• Forms by budding off from the Golgi
137. Peroxisome
• Self-replicates
• Detoxifies chemicals
• Participates in lipid metabolism
138. Tubulin
A protein that is the main constituent of microtubules.
139. Cytoskeleton
Microscopic network of filaments that give shape to cells.
140. Spindle Apparatus
Segregates chromosomes during cell division.
141. Actin and Myosin
Filaments in muscle that provide movement.
142. Eukaryotic Flagella
Whipping motion; microtubules made of tubulin.
143. Prokaryotic Flagella
Spinning/rotating motion; simple helices made of flagellin.
144. Tight Junctions
Water-proof barriers
145. Gap Junctions
Tunnels allowing exchange
146. Desmosomes
Strongest cellular junction but are not watertight barriers.
147. Types of membrane transport
• Diffusion
• Facilitated Diffusion
• Active Transport
• Secondary Active Transport
148. Phospholipids
Major component of all cell membranes that form lipid bilayers. Most phospholipids contain a diglyceride.
149. Integral Protein
A protein molecule or protein assembly permanently attached in a biological membrane.
150. Transport Proteins
Transport substances such as molecules and ions across the membrane, within the cell, or can be involved in vesicular transport.
151. Cholesterol
Organic chemical substance classified as a waxy steroid of fat. Essential structural component of mammalian cell membranes and is required to establish proper membrane permeability and fluidity.
152. Receptor Proteins
Signal-receiving molecules embedded in the cell wall.
153. Exocytosis
The release of cellular substances contained in cell vesicles by fusion of the vesicular membrane with the plasma membrane and release of the contents to the exterior of the cell.
154. Endocytosis
Incorporation of substances into a cell by phagocytosis or pinocytosis.
155. Phagocytosis
Cell eating
156. Pinocytosis
Cell drinking
157. To calculate ∆S
Srxn = S(products) - S(reactants)

• Increase in entropy or disorder = +∆S
• Decrease in entropy or increase in order = –∆S
158. Colligative properties
• 1. Depends on number of particles not mass.
• 2. Raises bp and lowers fp (antifreeze)
159. A loss in weight from heating a solution occurs because...
Volatile components are released.
160. Calculating energy lost to Ffriction
Energy dissipated by frictional force is equal to the force they are exerting times the distance over which they exert that force.
161. Coherent definition (light)
Coherent light are light waves that are "in phase" with one another.
162. Diffuse definition (light)
Light waves are widely divergent or scattered.
163. An alpha glucose ring differs from a beta glucose ring at...
The C-1 carbon
164. Nearsighted problem and correction
Image is in front of the retina.

Divergent lens for correction.
165. Carbonyl, C=O (IR absorbance)
1700 sharp, deep
166. Alcohol, OH (IR absorbance)
167. Saturated Alkane, CH (IR absorbance)
2800 sharp, deep
168. Carboxylic Acid, OH (IR absorbance)
169. Amine, NH (IR absorbance)
170. Amide, NH (IR absorbance)
171. Nitriles, CN (IR absorbance)
2250 sharp, deep
172. Specific Gravity formula
SG = Dsubstance/DH2O

D = density
173. Taxonomy classifications and levels
• Domain
• Kingdom
• Phylum
• Class
• Order
• Family
• Genus
• Species
174. Gram Positive Characteristics
• Stain purple (high amount of peptidoglycan retains dye)
• Very thick cell walls
• Form endospores
• Single cell membrane.
175. Gram Negative Characteristics
• Stain pink (bc the relatively low amount of peptidoglycan)
• Relatively thin cell wall
• Do NOT form endospores
• Contain two cell membranes (inside and outside of the cell wall)
176. The ways for bacterial gene exchange
Transformation: take up DNA from surroundings.

Transduction: genes transfered via virus

Conjugation: sex pilus (other bacteria)
177. Primary, secondary, etc. in O-Chem
Depends on how many are actually bonded to the atom in question.
178. pH of blood
Just over 7 in a healthy individual.

Goes up with excess O2 and down with excess CO2.
179. Blood flow through heart

• (VC) Vena cavae
• (RA) Right atrium
• (RV) Right ventricle
• (PA) Pulmonary artery
• Lungs
• (PV) Pulmonary vein
• (LA) Left atrium
• (LV) Left ventricle
• (A) Aorta
• Body organs
• Right atrium again
180. Thickness of ventricular walls
Left ventricular wall is thicker and generates higher pressure upon contraction.
181. Liver and pancreas are parts of what system?
Digestive
Stores bile produced by the liver that digests hydrophobic fats (e.g. triglycerides)
183. Medium needed to culture viruses
Tissue culture.

Intact cells with all intracellular mechanisms still functioning are needed.
184. Linear motion (distance, acceleration, time) aka displacement formula
X = 1/2at2
185. Torricelli's (velocity, gravity/acc., height/distance)
v = √(2gh)
186. Universal gravitation (force, two masses)
F = Gmm/r2
187. Force equation
F = ma
188. Ideal gas law
PV = nRT
189. Kinetic energy
KE = 1/2mv2
190. Gravitational potential energy (near earth)
PE = mgh
191. Elastic potential energy
PE = 1/2kx2
192. Electric potential energy
193. Potential energy stored by a capacitor
PE = 1/2cv2

• c - capacitance
• v - voltage
194. Force for a ramp
Fmachine = mg(h/d)

• h - vertical height
• d - length of ramp (hypotenuse)
195. Force for a lever
Fmachine = mg(L1/L2)

L1 and L2 refer to the lever arms for the mass and the applied force, respectively. (What does this sentence mean?)
196. Force for a pulley
Fmachine = mg/(# of vertical ropes directly lifting the mass)
197. Force for hydraulic lifs
• Fmachine = mg(h1h2)
• Fmachine = mg(A1A2)

• Where h1 and h2 refer to the distance traveled by the large plunger and the small plunger, respectively.
• Where A1 and A2 refer to the cross-sectional areas of the small plunger and large plunger, respectively.
198. Power formulas
• P = ∆E/t
• P = W/t
• P = Fdcos/t
• Pinstantaneous = Fvcos

Units - Watts (J/s)
199. Speed of a wave

• frequency - occurences per (time)
• wavelength - crest to crest or trough to trough
200. Circumferance
C = 2πr
201. Energy of a photon
202. Acceleration down a slope
a = gsin
203. Conservation of momentum (linear)
vfinal = vinitial(minitial/mfinal)
204. Calculating coefficient of friction
On a plane:

Ffriction = µmg

On a slope:

Ffriction = µmgcos
205. Buoyant force
FB = fluidvobjectg
206. Relationship between frequency, wavelength, and speed of a wave. (light and sound)
207. Wave beats wavelength
Wavelength = speed (c for light) / frequency of beat
208. Glomerulus
A tuft of capillaries situated within a Bowman's capsule at the end of the renal tubule in the kidney that filters waste products from the blood and initiates urine formation.
209. Bowman's Capsule
The structure surrounding the glomerulus.
210. Proximal Convoluted Tubule
• Is responsible for the reabsorption of glucose, amino acids, various ions, and water.
• Sodium is actively transported, chloride follows passively by electrical attraction, and water follows the salt out of the proximal tubule.
211. Descending Loop of Henle
Is permeable to water.
212. Ascending Loop of Henle
• Na+ is actively transported out and Cl follows due to electrical attraction.
• Impermeable to water.
213. Juxtaglomerular Apparatus
Located next to each glomerulus, it is involved in the secretion of renin and EPO in response to blood pressure changes.
214. Distal Convoluted Tubule
Reabsorbs Na+ through coupled secretion of H+ or K+. Requires the presence of aldosterone. Plays an important role in acid-base balance.
215. Collecting Duct
As the collecting ducts pass through the hypertonic renal medulla, water leaves by osmosis and is carried away in surrounding capillaries.

The permeability of the collecting ducts to water is stimulated by antidiuretic hormone (ADH).

Urine is collected and moved into the renal pelvis and ureters.
216. Renal Pelvis
The funnel-shaped cavity of the kidney into which urine is discharged before passing into the ureter.
217. Ureter
The long narrow duct that conveys urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder.
218. Renal Plasma Clearance
Inulin is filtered but neither reabsorbed nor secreted. Its clearance is thus equal to the glomerular filtration rate.
219. Granular (juxtaglomerular cells) secrete _____ when there is a fall in _____ ion concentration.
Renin / Na+
220. If you took a drug that inhibited the reabsorbtion of Na+ in the PCT, you would:
Have an increased urine output
221. In the nephron glucose is...
Filtered, and reabsorbed, but not secreted.
222. Typically, as GFR increases, the [Na+] of the filtrate reaching the DCT will...
Increase
223. What would happen to the GFR if the hydrostatic pressure exerted by the fluid in the capsular space increased?
GFR would decrease
224. True or False: Glomerular filtration is an ATP-driven process.
False
225. Aldosterone causes...
Decreased urine output
226. During reabsorption, Na+ leaves the proximal tubule by means of...
Active transport
227. The majority of reabsorption occurs in the...
Proximal convoluted tubule
228. Functions of the kidney
• Release of hormones
• Maintenance of plasma pH
• Maintenance of plasma [electrolyte]
• Gluconeogenesis
229. In a patient who is dehydrated from vomiting and diarrhea, what is likely to be higher than normal in blood?
230. How do the kidneys respond to drop in blood pressure?
By activating the renin-angiotensin system. This increases the amount of sodium and water that is reabsorbed by the kidneys, therefore increasing blood volume and pressure.
231. The effect blood pressure on GFR
Higher pressure increased GFR or more filtrate.
232. Bond lengths from shortest to longest
Triple, double, single
233. Bond strengths from weakest to strongest
C-C, C=C, C=C
234. Bond stability from least stable to most
Triple, double, single.
235. Calculating formal charge
Formal charge = valence – assigned
236. Energy changes in forming and breaking bonds
Energy is always released when a bond is formed, and required when a bond is broken.
237. Heat of combustion trend
The less stable the bond, the greater will be the heat of combustion. The more stable the bond, the lower the heat of combustion.
238. Hückel's Rule
To determine aromaticity,

4n + 2 pi
239. To determine net equation
Remove spectator ions
240. Gibbs free energy equation
∆G = ∆Gf(products) – ∆Gf(reactants)
241. Keq
with coefficients as the exponents.
242. Volume of one mole of ideal gas
22.4L at STP

Virtually all gasses can be considered ideal at common temps and pressures.
243. Oxidation states are related to...
Electronegativity
244. What kind of compound is HCl?
Covalent
245. What phase are ionic compounds at room temp?
Solid
246. Which compounds conduct electricity in solution?
Ionic
247. The numerical value of what force is irrelevant when determining buoyant force?
Gravity
248. Phase diagram
• Sublimation - Solid to gas
249. Litmus paper color changes
• Red Blue in base
• Blue Red in acid

No color change either means it is in the opposite solution, or that the solution is neutral.
250. Metathesis reaction
251. Ksp concentration trends
The lower the value of Ksp is, the lower the concentrations of the cation and anion in an aqueous solution and the lower the solubility of the compound in water.
252. Which of the characteristics of sound (frequency, wavelength, intensity, speed) remains constant in still air?
Speed
253. Ohm's law in the cardiovascular system
P = CO x VR

• p - blood pressure
• CO - cardiac output
• VR - vascular resistance
254. With O-Chem structures, the predominant conformation is also the _______ and has the _______ substituent in the _______ position.
most stable, largest, equatorial.
255. Allosteric Site
A site on a multi-subunit enzyme that is not the substrate binding site (not the active site) but that when reversibly bound by an effector induces a conformational change in the enzyme, altering its catalytic properties.
256. When saponifying a triacylglycerol, how many OH ions are required?
Three equivalents, because one OH ion is required to hydrolyze one ester linkage of a triacylglycerol molecule.
257. What digestive system substances are produced in the pancreas?
Several proteolytic enzymes, which are released into the small intestine and converted to their active forms of trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase.
258. What is one characteristic that distinguishes eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic cells?
Eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria.
259. From what germ layer does heart tissue differentiate?
Mesoderm
260. Where are sex-linked genetic traits found?
Either on a sex chromosome (X, Y) or on an autosome.
261. An inhibitor of microtubule reorganization prevents what?
Phagocytosis.

Phagocytosis requires that the cell change shape dramatically as is surrounds and engulfs large extracellular particles. This function relies on the microtubules to disassemble and reorganize. Inhibiting microtubule reorganization would therefore prevent phagocytosis.
262. How to determine the number of different possible gametes that can be formed by diploid organisms.
2n

Where n is the haploid number of chromosomes.Ex. AaBbCc has 3 haploid chromosomes and so 23 is 8
263. What occurs during mitosis but not during meiosis I?
The splitting of centromeres.One difference between these two mechanisms is during respective anaphases. During anaphase in mitosis, sister chromatids are pulled apart. During anaphase of meiosis I, homologous pairs are separated into two daughter cells. It is not until anaphase II in meiosis that the centromere is split.
264. Transcription of DNA into RNA occurs in the _______
Nucleus
265. Translation of RNA into proteins occurs in the _______
Cytoplasm.

This is done by ribosomes.
266. Sine 0˚
0
267. Sine 30˚
.5
268. Sine 45˚
.7
269. Sine 60˚
.9
270. Sine 90˚
1
271. Cosine 0˚
1
272. Cosine 30˚
.9
273. Cosine 45˚
.7
274. Cosine 60˚
.5
275. Cosine 90˚
0
276. Method for solving fractions, with a fraction in the denominator.
Multiply the top and bottom of the primary fraction, by the reciprocal of the fraction in the denominator. This will make the top a new fraction and the bottom one.

• Ex.
277. If you have 4/3 of an original quantity, then the final amount has...
Increased by 1/3
278. Thermodynamic
Whether or not a process or reaction can occur.
279. Kinetic
How fast or slow a process or rection can occur.
280. Exothermic energy coordinate diagram
281. Endothermic energy coordinate diagram
282. Convection
Fluid movement caused by the hotter portions of a fluid rising and the cooler portions of a fluid sinking.
• Electromagnetic waves emitted from a hot body into the surrounding environment.
• Light colors radiate and absorb less
• Dark colors radiate and absorb more
284. Conduction
• Molecular collisions along a conduit
• Analogous to current flow through a wire or H2O through a pipe
285. Heat Capacity (definition)
The amount of energy (in Joules or Calories) a system can absorb per temperature unit (J/K or cal/˚C).
286. Heat Capacity (formula)
C = q/∆T
287. Specific Heat Capacity (definition)
Is for a given substance only and is defined as the heat capacity per unit mass.
288. Specific Heat Capacity (formula)
q = mc∆T
289. Specific Heat of Water
• 1.0 cal/g˚C
• or
• 4.18 J/g˚C
290. First Law of Thermodynamics
• ∆E = q + w
• Work done on the system (+)
• Work done by the system (–)
291. Second Law of Thermodynamics
• Heat cannot be changed completely into work in a cyclical process
• Entropy in an isolated system can never decrease
292. Third Law of Thermodynamics
Pure substances at absolute zero have an entropy of zero
293. Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
Temperature exists
294. Celsius – Kelvin conversion
• 0˚ C = 273.15 K
• -273.15˚ C = 0 K
• Absolute zero = 0 K
295. Kinetic Energy of Gasses (formula)
• KE = 3/2kT
• k = Boltzman's constant (1.3806503 e 23 m2 kg s-2 K-1)
296. Enthalpy
• (∆H)
• The energy contained within chemical bonds or HEAT
297. Entropy
• (∆S)
• A measure of the randomness or disorder in a system
298. Standard State
• Standard State is 25˚ C (298K) and ∆H = 0
• *For thermodynamics problems
299. STP
• STP (standard temperature and pressure) is 0˚ Celsius (273K) and 1 atm
• *For gas problems
300. + ∆S =
Increased randomness, energy released and available to do work
301. – ∆S =
Decreased randomness, energy is required to "create" increased order and that energy is thus unavailable to do work
302. Entropy (∆S) increases with: (5 things)
• 1. Increased number of items/particles/etc. (Gas trumps # of moles or particles. This means that if two moles of reactants makes one mole of product and that product is a gas, it is still +∆S)
• 2. Increased volume
• 3. Increased temperature
• 4. Increased disorder
• 5. Decreased pressure (the higher the pressure the more packing and order of molecules)
303. Gibbs Free Energy (∆G)
∆G = the amount of "free" or "useful" energy available to do work.

• -∆G = Spontaneous; exothermic
• +∆G = Non-spontaneous; endothermic
304. Rate Order Graphs
• 0 order: [A] vs. time is linear with slope -k
• 1st order: ln[A] vs. time is linear with slope -k
• 2nd order: 1/[A] vs. time is linear with slope k
• 3rd order: 1/2[A]2 vs. time is linear with slope k
305. Fundamental Thermodynamic Relation formula
∆G = ∆H - T∆S

• ∆G - Gibbs
• ∆H - Enthalpy
• ∆S - Entropy
• T - Temp K
306. Entropy signs
• (+) means more disorder or increased entropy.
• (–) means more order or decreased entropy.
307. Extraction (reaction mixture polarities)
• Option 1: Aqueous (polar)
• Option 2: Organic (non-polar)

Both will have an extraction solvent with an opposite polarity added to their mixture.
308. Extraction mixture effectiveness
The reaction mixture will only work with an oppositely charged extraction solvent if the product is more soluble n the extraction solvent than it is in its current solvent.

This can be remedied by protonating or deprotonating the product, resulting in a charge.
309. Top vs. Bottom
When an aqueous solvent is mixed with almost any non-polar organic solvent the water will be the bottom layer. This is unless the organic solvent is more dense than water, which means density will be given in the q-stem.
310. Strong acid
Protonates any base
311. Weak acid
Protonates strong bases only
312. Weak base
Deprotonates strong acids only
313. Strong base
Deprotonates any acid
314. Gravity filtration
Physical separation of a solid through filtration paper.
315. Crystallization
Mixture containing the desired product is cooled very slowly, because pure substances crystallize.
316. Chromatography general rule
The first substance "out" will be the LEAST polar.
317. Rf (retention factor) of Paper Chromatography
Distance traveled by component / Distance traveled by solvent
318. Rf values and polarity
Inversely proportional to one another. Rf values range between 0-1. 0.9 would be non-polar and .1 would be extremely polar.
319. Column Chromatography
The mixture to be separated is passed through a column packed with charged glass beads or another polar matrix. The targeted material is stuck in the beads and the rest passes through.
320. Gas Chromatography
Mixture is dissolved in an inert substance and heated to form a gas. It passes through a tube of something polar or non polar depending on the desired product. The gasses will separate according to their retention to the substance and the substances will exit at different times.
321. Carbonyl, C=O (IR absorbance)
1700 sharp, deep
322. Alcohol, OH (IR absorbance)
323. Saturated Alkane, CH (IR absorbance)
2800 sharp, deep
324. Carboxylic Acid, OH (IR absorbance)
325. Amine, NH (IR absorbance)
326. Amide, NH (IR absorbance)
327. Nitriles, CN (IR absorbance)
2250 sharp, deep
328. NMR
An atom must have either an odd atomic number or an odd mass number to register on an NMR (or an MRI; for the MCAT, think of MRIs as a large-scale NMR of the human body).
329. Mass Spec
• e- bombardment of a molecule to:
• 1. Break apart into smaller pieces
• 2. To ionize
330. Parent peak (Mass Spec)
Represents the original molecule missing one electron.
331. Base peak (Mass Spec)
Is the most common fragment and equals 100% relative abundance.
332. Peak heights (Mass Spec)
The height of each peak gives the relative abundance of each individual fragment with a unique m/z.
333. Clusters of splitting peaks in HNMR represent...
n + 1 sub-peaks, where n is the number of non-equivalent hydrogen neighbors.
334. Order of UV absorbance from least to greatest in UV Spec
• Sigma only show little to none
• Double and triple bonds absorb strongly
• Conjugated systems absorb UV even more strongly than do isolated double or triple bonds

*The greater the degree of conjugation, the farther to the right (longer wavelength in nm) the species will absorb.
335. Characteristics of a base
Receives protons and is electron dense.
336. Characteristics of a nucleophile
Nu attack carbon or other central atoms like nitrogen.
337. Characteristics of an electrophile
E+ are electron poor species with a full or partial positive charge.
338. E1 number of steps
2
339. E1 order of reaction
First order
340. E1 C+ formed?
Yes
341. E1 methyl or hydride shifts?
Yes
342. E1 product stereochemistry
Planar
343. E1 favored by...
Weak bases; 3˚ carbons only; polar protic solvents
344. SN1 number of steps
2
345. SN1 order of reaction
First order
346. SN1 C+ formed?
Yes
347. SN1 methyl or hydride shifts?
Yes
348. SN1 product stereochemistry
Racemic mixture
349. SN1 favored by...
Poor nucleophiles; 3˚ carbons only; polar protic solvents
350. E2 number of steps
1
351. E2 order of reaction
Second order
352. E2 C+ formed?
No
353. E2 methyl or hydride shifts?
No
354. E2 product stereochemistry
Planar
355. E2 favored by...
Strong bases
356. SN2 number of steps
1
357. SN2 order of reaction
Second order
358. SN2 C+ formed?
No
359. SN2 methyl or hydride shifts?
No
360. SN2 product stereochemistry
Inversion of relative configuration
361. SN2 favored by...
Good nucleophiles; methyl, 1˚ or 2˚ carbons
362. Alkanes physical properties
• Insoluble in water
• Very low density
• Non-polar
• Most are oils/gases
363. General mp and bp trends
• Bp increases with increasing chain length and molecular weight.
• Branching signifcantly lowers bp.
• Mp increases with increasing chain length and molecular weight.
• Mp decreases with branching.
364. Alkane combustion definition
A violent, radical, chain reaction with oxygen, requiring a very high energy of activation.

Ex: CH4 + 2O2 -> CO2 + H2O + Heat
365. Radical halogenation of an alkane
Alkanes react with Flourine, Chlorine or Bromine (Not Iodine) in the presence of heat or ligh via a radical chain reaction.

*The major product-forming step is propogation, NOT termination.
366. Radical halogenation of an alkane
Tertiary > Secondary > Primary

• Reactivity: F > Cl > Br
• Selectivity: Br > Cl > F
368. The most stable place for bond formation between an alkane and a halogen
The most substituted carbon
369. Synthesis of an Alkane from an Alkene
Reduce an alkene with H2 in the presence of a metal catalyst. This is syn addition.
370. Alkene properties
• Nucleophiles
• Slightly more polar than alkanes, less dense than water, only slightly soluble.
• More acidic than alkanes, but still unlikely to give up a hydrogen.
• Like alkanes, bp andmp increase with mw and decrease with branching.
371. Alkene stability
Tetrasubstituted > trisubstituted > disubstituted > monosubstituted > unsubstituted

*R-groups inrease alkene stability
372. Alkene physical properties
• Slightly more polar than alkanes, less dense than water, only slightly soluble.
• More acidic than alkanes, but still unlikely to give up a hydrogen.
• Like alkanes, bp and mp increase with mw and decrease with branching.
373. Alcohols physical properties
• Boiling point goes up with increasing mw and down with increased branching.
• Melting point goes up with increasing mw.

Alcohols have high bp and mp due to h-bonding.
374. Alcohol acidity
Alcohols are less acidic than water.

Alcohols increase in acidity from tertiary to primary.
375. Acid base definitions
• Arrhenius: Acids produce [H+] ions in solution and bases produce [OH] ions in solution
• Bronstead-Lowry: Acids donate protons [H+]; bases accept protons [H+].
• Lewis: Acids accept a pair of electrons; bases donate a pair of electrons.

Amphoteric substances can act as either an acid or a base. (e.g. H2O)
376. pH scale
• pH = –log[H+]
• pOH = –log[OH]
• pH + pOH = 14
377. Strong Acids
• HI
• HBr
• HCl
• HNO3
• HClO4
• HClO3
• H2SO4

Polyprotic acids: acids with more than one acidic proton like sulfuric acid. The second proton is always significantly less acidic.
378. Strong Bases
• Group IA hydroxides (NaOH, KOH, etc.)
• NH2
• H
• Ca(OH)2
• Na2O
• CaO
379. Antibonding orbitals
Higher in energy than bonding orbitals; contains electrons "out of phase" that are said to be "repulsive".
380. Bonding Orbitals
Lower in energy than anti-bonding orbitals; contain electrons that are "in phase" that are said to be "attractive".
381. Good electrolytes
Covalent compounds that dissociate 100% in water (strong acids and strong bases) and ionic compounds are always good electrolytes.
382. Condosity
The condosity of a solution is defined as the molar concentration of sodium chloride that has the same specific electrical conductance as the solution.

(ex. 3M LiCl has a condosity of less than 3M because Na has more metallic character than Li so a lower concentration of Na Cl would be sufficient to conduct electricity just as well)
383. Bond Energy
The energy stored in a bond. This is the amoung of energy that will be required to break the bond. Therefore, stable compounds have the highest bond energies, and unstable compounds have low bond energies.

According to the MCAT this is also known as "bond dissociation energy".
384. Heat of Combustion
The higher the energy of the molecule (i.e. less stable) the higher the heat of combustion.
385. Empirical vs Molecular formulas
The empirical formula is the simplest formula for a compound. A molecular formula is the same as or a multiple of the empirical formula, and is based on the actual number of atoms of each type in the compound. For example, if the empirical formula of a compound is C3H8 , its molecular formula may be C3H8 , C6H16 , etc.
386. Percent mass
The percent mass of one element in the formula/total mass of all elements in the formula.
387. Deriving a formula from percent mass
• 1) Change the percent for each species into grams.
• 2) Convert the grams of each species into moles by dividing by molar mass.
• 3) Look at the element with the lowest number of moles. Calculate approximately how many times it will divide into each of the other molar amounts for each of the other elements -- this number is the subscript for each element in the empirical formula. If the subscripts are not at there lowest common denominator, reduce to get the empirical formula.

AN EMPIRICAL FORMULA IS ALL YOU CAN GET FROM PERCENT MASS ALONE. TO GET THE MOLECULAR FORMULA, YOU MUST BE GIVEN THE MW OF THE UNKOWN COMPOUND. Then simply divide that MW by the MW of the empirical formula. You should get a whole number. Multiply each subscript by that number to get the molecular formula.
388. Combination Reaction
A+BAB
389. Decomposition Reaction
ABA + B
390. Single Displacement Reaction
AB + CAC + B
391. Double Displacement Reaction (Metathesis Reaction)
AB + CDAC + BD
392. How to name general Ionic compounds
Name the cation first, then the anion (e.g., CaSo₄ is Calcium Sulfate)
393. How to name Transition Metals
When written in words, compounds including transition elements must have a roman numeral showing the oxidation state of the metal (i.e., Iron(II)Sulfate vs. Iron(III)sulfate).
394. How to name Monatomic ions
Named by replacing the last syllable with "ide" (i.e., Sulfide, Hydride, Chloride, etc.)
395. How to name Acids
"ate" becomes "ic" (Sulfuric/Nitric acid)"ite" becomes "ous" (Nitrous acid)"ide" becomes "hydro/ic" (hydroiodic/hydroflouric acid)
396. Steps in balancing reactions
• 1) Balance Carbons
• 2) Balance Hydrogens
• 3) Balance oxygens
• 4) Balance others
• 5) Finally, multiply all species by the number in the denominator of any fraction to remove the fractions
397. How to find limiting reagent
• 1) Convert to moles
• 2) Balance the equations
• 3) compare the number of moles you have to the number of moles required to run one cycle of the reaction.

The reactant you run out of first is the limiting reagent. This may not always be the reactant you have the least of (grams or moles).
398. Trick for finding which compound requires more oxygen to combust
Add 1 point for each carbon there is and subtract 1/2 for each oxygen there is in the compound...the compound with the highest point value requires the greatest number of oxygens
399. Yields
Theoretical Yield: products formed when all the limiting reagent is used.

Actual Yield: product obtained from reaction - always less then theoretical yield.

Percent Yield: actual/theoretical X 100%
400. Chemical Equilibrium
• Keq = [products]x / [reactants]y
• Keq is written with every term raised to an exponent equal to its coefficient in the balanced equation (remember, however, that you do NOT do this when writing rate laws). Pure liquids (l) and pure solids (s) are never included!
401. The Reaction Quotient (Q)
The equilibrium constant can ONLY by calculated at equilibrium. IF you make the exact same calculation using concentration values taken at any point other than equilibrium the result is called the REACTION QUOTIENT, Q.

• If Q > K, run will proceed to the left
• If Q < K, run will proceed to the right.
402. How does increasing temperature in an exothermic reaction change Keq?
Increases it which shifts the equilibrium to the left making more reactants.
Right shift
Left shift
405. (Le Chatelier) Increase Pressure
Shift to side with the less gas molecules
406. (Le Chatelier) Increase temperature
Shift toward side that heat species is not on.
407. Polar molecule characteristics
408. Coordinate Covalent
One atom provides both electrons to the bond and the other has an empty valence shell.

Almost always includes a transition metal.

NH3 is very very commonly used.
409. Phase state of ionic compounds
Solids at room temp.
410. 1 cm3 is equivalent to...
1 mL
411. Accompanies most all radioactive decay
Gamma ray emission.
412. Keq definition
Ration of products over reactants raised to their coefficients in the balanced equation.

Strong acids dissociate 100% and therefore are all product over almost no reactant.
413. Metals always form _______.
Cations
414. Non-metals always form _______.
Anions
415. Cations are _______ than their neutral counterparts.
Smaller
416. Anions are _______ than their neutral counterparts.
Larger
417. Metals
Very large atoms with loosely held electrons...Form cations, are lustrous, ductile, malleable, and excellent conductors of both heat and electricity...they are usually only involved in ionic bonds.
418. Non-metals
Smaller atoms with loosely held electrons...Form anions, have much lower melting points than metals, and with very few exceptions, only nonmetals form covalent bonds.
419. Large atom characteristics
Larger atoms are better at stabilizing charges, form weaker pi bonds, and have d orbitals where they can "stash" extra electrons.
420. Alkali metals
Group 1, 1 electron in outer level, very reactive, soft, silver, shiny, low density; Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Cesium, Francium
421. Alkaline earth metals
Metallic elements in group 2 of the periodic table which are harder than the alkali metals and are also less reactive.
422. Lanthanides
The first of the two rows below the main part of periodic table. usually used in alloys, soft, malleable, shiny and good electrical conductors.
423. Actinides
In the 2nd row of transition metals, radioactive, unstable, do not occur in nature.
424. Periodic table blocks
425. Electron Affinity
• The amount of energy released when an electron is added to a neutral atom or molecule to form a negative ion.
• X + e− → X−

It increases from left to right and from bottom to top
426. Electronegativity
The ability of an atom to attract electrons when the atom is in a compound.

It increases from left to right and from bottom to top
427. Ionization Energy
The energy required to remove 1 mole of electrons from 1 mole of gaseous atoms or ions. Large atoms or molecules have a low ionization energy, while small molecules tend to have higher ionization energies.

It increases from left to right and from bottom to top

Atomic radius gets larger from right to left and top to bottom.
429. Metallic Character Trends

Increases from right to left and top to bottom
430. Metallic characteristics
BIG and low low ionization energy
431. First Quantum Number
"n" (the principle quantum number)

Gives the Shell (i.e., Valence electrons are in the outermost "shell") and is approximately equal to the relative energy of electrons in that shell.
432. Second Quantum Number
"" (the azimuthal quantum number)

• Gives the subshell: has values of 0,1,2,3 and from this were know the shape:
• 0=S ; 1=P ; 2=d ; 3=f
433. Third Quantum Number
"m" (the magnetic quantum number)"the magnetic quantum number"

Gives the orbital; has a value of - to (from the azimuthal quantum number)

The orbital is the portion of the subshell where an electron is most likely to be found (i.e., which "dumbbell" of a p subshell)
434. Fourth Quantum Number
"ms" (the electron spin quantum number)

Gives the spin which is either +1/2 or -1/2 (Positive is up arrow or negative is down arrow)
435. Heisenberg uncertainty principle
States a fundamental limit on the accuracy with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, such as position and momentum, can be simultaneously known.

The more precisely one property is measured, the less precisely the other can be controlled, determined, or known. You can know it's momentum, or where it's at, but you can't know both at the same time.
436. Pauli exclusion principle
No two electrons in a single atom can have the same four quantum numbers; if n, , and m are the same, ms must be different such that the electrons have opposite spins, and so on.
437. The Work Function
If you bombard certain metals with energy, you can cause the ejection of an electron from their outermost shell (i.e., valence electron). The amount of energy required to do this is called the "work functions."

This is not the same as the Ionization energy because that refers to only lone atoms in a gaseous state. The work function refers to the valence electrons being ejected from the surface of a metal.
438. Work Function formula
KE = E –

• - work function variable
• KE - of the ejected electron
• E - amount of energy added

-or-

E = hf

• E - energy of a photon
• h - Planck's constant
• f - frequency
439. Alpha Decay
A He nucleus (2 neutrons and 2 protons) are ejected
440. Beta Decay
Neutron is changed into a proton (with the ejection of an electron)
441. Electron Capture
A proton is changed into a neutron via capture of an electrion
442. Positron Emission (beta+ decay)
A proton is changed into a neutron (with expulsion of a positron)
443. Calculating Percent Mass
Mass of one element divided by the total mass.
444. Deriving a formula from percent mass
• 1. Change the percent for each species into grams
• 2. Convert the grams of each species into moles by dividing by molar mass.
• 3. Look at the element with the lowest number of moles. Calculate approximately how many times it will divide into each of the other molar amounts for each of the other elements--this number is the subscript for each element in the empirical formula. If the subscripts are not at their lowest common denominator, reduce to get the empirical formula.
445. How to determine moles from mL
m = V * P

mass (g) = volume (cm3 or mL) * density (g/cm3)

Then divide mass by molecular weight to get moles.
446. Incomplete Penetrance
Occurs when the individual has the allele but is not expressed in the phenotype.
447. Co-dominance
Two of the same gene and both are dominant and both are expressed.

ex- Blood type...IaIb gives you AB blood, IaIo gives you type A, IbIo gives you type B, and IoIo gives you type O...spotted horses and cows..in parts of the animal's skin one allele is expressed to give one color and in other areas the other allele is expressed to give the other color
448. Incomplete Dominance
One allele is not completely dominant over the other, thus you get a mixed phenotype.
449. According to the MCAT, when do you have genetic linkage?
When there is any deviation from Mendelian ratios.
450. Gene pool
The complete set of unique alleles in a population...small gene pool= not a lot of genetic diversity and large gene pool= lots of diversity.
451. Evolution
Any change to the heritable characteristics (DNA) of a species across several generations or over time.
452. Polymorphism
A completely unique phenotypic trait that is expressed in different members of the same species...ex- black man vs a white woman.
453. Niche
The way an animal lives.

Fundamental niche - an organism in a particular environment could grow any way it wanted and feed off whatever it felt like if there was no competition.

Realized niche - Because all species do live in competitive environments and do have more superior competitors competing with them for resources a species may have to adapt to a particular niche (way of life) to which it is most highly adapted.
454. Natural Selection
Non-random process by which certain alleles (traits) become either more or less common in a population due to the effects of those traits on the fitness of the individual with emphasis on those alleles that contribute to reproductive success in particular. It is a mechanism of evolution but is not evolution itself.
455. Speciation
When one species in different environments evolves into two different species.

Ex. Galapogos Island finches.
457. Evolutionary Bottleneck
Some random event kills off a large portion of a population indiscriminately...the most fit individuals do NOT necessarily survive...these events INCREASE genetic drift bc with a much smaller gene pool random matings and assortment of gametes will have a much larger outcome on the gene pool of the population.
458. Genetic Drift
The random fluctuations in the allele frequencies in a population.
459. Carrying capacity
The population size that the local environment can support.
460. R-selected population
Rapid growth, numerous offspring, offspring mature rapidly and don't require a lot, if any, post-natal care. dies quickly. predominates in unstable/unpredictable environments. usually have small body size. i.e. bacteria.
461. K-selection
Pop size is close to carrying capacity. roughtly constant pop size. low reproduction rate, offspring large and require more post-natal care. Predominates in stable/predictable enviroments. i.e. humans.
462. Hardy-Weinberg Assumptions
• 1) Large population
• 2) No mutation
• 3) No immigration or emigration
• 4) Random mating
• 5) No natural selection
463. Hardy-Weinberg Equations
• p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1
• p + q = 1

• p - dominant allele frequency in a population
• q - recessive allele frequency in a population
• p2 - percentage of individuals with homozygous dominant genotype
• 2pq - percentage of individuals with heterozygous genotype
464. Taxonomy
(Domain), Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
465. Human Taxonomy
Eukarya, Animalia, Chordata (vertebrae and skull), Mammalia, Primates, Hominidae, Homo, Sapiens
466. Symbiosis
The "living together of unlike organisms".
467. Mutualism
Any relationship between members of different species in which each member derives a benefit from the relationship.
468. Commensalism
A relationship in which one individual benefits and the other individual is not significantly harmed OR helped.
469. Parasitic
One member of the relationship benefits while the other is harmed.
470. Virus
A small infectious agent that can ONLY replicate inside the cells of another living organism.
471. Latent period
The virus is dormant inside the cell of another organism...means that it is there and capable of functioning but it has not started to divide and replicate.
472. Virulence
A measure of how likely an infection (via the virus) is to occur and how severe the symptoms are in the organism it infects after infection.
473. Which of the following is a virus likely to be classified as?A) Highly virulent
B) Optimally virulent
C) Low virulent
Optimally virulent..if the parasite/virus infects the host and causes symptoms so severe that the host dies before the virus has time to infect another host then the virus dies and thus its genetic material is less fit...this is just as bad for the virus as a virus with a low virulence that has a hard time infecting hosts.
474. Provirus
The viral genome that is integrated into the host's DNA.
475. Reverse Transcriptase
Retroviruses have RNA as their genetic material so they have a reverse transcriptase that converts their RNA into DNA which can then be inserted into the host's genome transcribed by the host cell's transcription machinery to replicate the virus.
476. Retrovirus
RNA virus that uses reverse transcriptase to turn its RNA into DNA.
477. Gram Positive Characteristics
• Stain purple (high amount of peptidoglycan retains dye)
• Very thick cell walls
• Form endospores
• Single cell membrane
478. Gram Negative Characteristics
• Stain pink (bc the relatively low amount of peptidoglycan)
• Relatively thin cell wall
• Do NOT form endospores
• Contain two cell membranes (inside and outside of the cell wall)
479. Bacteria characteristics
ALL bacteria are prokaryotes...they all have at least one cell membrane, a cell wall, and secrete some sort of capsule...they don't have any complex membrane-bound organelles...they have a single circular DNA chromosome and several small circular DNA molecules called plasmids.
480. Three types of bacteria
• Bacilli - rod-shaped
• Cocci - round-shaped
• Spirilla - spiral-shaped
481. Conjugation
The building of a sex pilus between two bacteria cells. The donor cell has to be F+ while the recepient must be F- (lacking F plasmid).
482. Transformation
Pick up DNA from environment
483. Transduction
Viruses accidentally incorporate host genetic material into their nucleic acids.
484. Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes
Prokaryotes: bacteria only , cell wall present, no nucleus but nucleoid, no membrane bound organelle, unicellular, smaller ribosomes

Eukaryotes: protists, fungi, plants, animals, cell wall only in fungi and plants, contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelle, smaller ribosomes.
485. Difference between mitosis and binary fission
Mitosis occurs in eukaryotes and involves spindle fibers; does not allow for exponential growth. Binary fission occurs only in prokaryotes; no spindle fibers; allows for exponential growth.

Both result in daughter cells that recieve full copies of parental chromosome. However, with binary fission, daughter cells may get unequal distribution of plasmids.
486. Chemotroph vs Phototroph
Chemotrophs gain their energy via the oxidation of chemical compounds that they get from their env't...Phototrophs get their energy by harnessing the energy of photons (light).
487. Autotroph vs. Heterotroph
• Autotrophs - the organism can rely on CO2 as a carbon source.
• Heterotrophs - must consume organic materials for their carbon.
488. Why do telomeres get shorter with each cell replication?
Because the enzymes that copy the DNA cannot proceed to the very end of the strand. Telomeres, long repeating sections of DNA that do not contain genes, protect the chromosome from degradation. The telomeres are shortened after each replication instead of losing important gene-bearing sections of the strand.
489. Diazotrophs
Bacteria that can convert N2 in the atmosphere into NH3 and NH3 into NO3
490. Fungi characteristics
• 1) Chemoheterotrophic (they do NOT have chloroplasts)...all fungi are saprophytic (they live off dead organisms)
• 2) They digest their food BEFORE they ingest it
• 3) Fungi have cell walls made of CHITIN (as opposed to the cellulose that make up cell walls of plants)
491. Fungal Reproduction
• Fungi spend most of their life as haploid (this is their growth phase which is also called hyphae - haploid.
• Yeasts primarily reproduce by a process called budding which is basically the same as binary fission except that it is an unequal division (one of the new cells is much larger than the other).
• Most fungi can reproduce sexually and asexually
492. Fungal sexual vs asexual reproduction
When life is hard due to stress, bad environment, little food, etc fungi reproduce sexually because this increases the chances of new phenotypic traits that will be more favorable due to increased genetic variability. However, when life is good fungi reproduce asexually.
493. Cofactor
Any species required by an enzyme to function.
494. Competitive Inhibitor
• Binds at the active site
• Overcome by increasing substrate
495. Non-competitive inhibitor
• Binds away from the active site and changes the enzyme's shape
• Decreases efficiency
496. Irreversible inhibitor
Binds covalently to the enzyme and permanently disables it
497. Positive feedback
When the product of an enzymatic reaction series returns to activate the enzyme again; occurs less often than negative feedback.

Childbirth
498. Negative feedback
A shutdown mechanism for a series of enzymatic reactions; when a series produces a sufficient amount of product it sends a signal back to stop it.

Blood glucose regulation
499. Zymogen
Inactive enzyme precursor. Keeps the enzyme inactive until it has finished folding/being transported to the right place
500. Allosteric Regulation
Regulation away from the active site. Feedback inhibitors do not resemble substrate of enzyme being inhibited, they bind and cause a conformational change. There are both allosteric inhibitors and activators.
501. Kinase function
Transfers PO₄³�?� to a substrate - phosphorylates others
502. Phosphatase function
Removes PO₄³�?� from a substrate - dephosphorylates others
503. Metabolism
The sum of all chemical reactions in the body.
504. Respiration
The breakdown of macromolecules into smaller species to harvest energy.
505. Facultative aerobes/anaerobes
An organism that can live in either an aerobic or an anaerobic environment (some types of bacteria; yeasts; individual human cells).
506. Obligate aerobe
Organism that REQUIRES oxygen to grow (humans)
507. Obligate anaerobes
An organism that MUST live in an anaerobic environment.
508. Substrate Level Phosphorylation
Formation of ATP from direct transfer of a phosphate group from a phosphorylated intermediate onto ADP.
509. Oxidative Phosphorylation
Oxidation energy is used to create a concentration gradient and use the stored energy from the concentration gradient to create ATP...although oxidation is coupled to phosphorylation in glycolysis, this is NOT an example of oxidative phosphorylation.
510. Fermentation
Sole route for many bacteria...used by animals ONLY during oxygen debt.
511. Ethanol Fermentation
Ethanol is produced and is the final electron acceptor.
512. Lactic Acid Fermentation
Lactate is produced and is the final electron acceptor.
513. Lipid Metabolism
Occurs in the Mitochondria; and to a limited degree in the peroxisomes.

Super long fatty acids are broken into smaller lipids in peroxisomes and these pieces are sent back to the mitochondria where they undergo ß-oxidation.
514. Beta oxidation
Fatty acid continues to cycle through beta oxidation getting 2 carbons shorter each time until fatty acid is totaly gone.
515. Protein Metabolism
Amino acids are broken down into acetyl CoA and fed into the Kreb's cycle.
516. Order of Metabolism
Healthy individuals burn carbohydrates first, then fats, then proteins.
517. Bidirectional Replication
Replication occurs on both the leading strand and the lagging strand at the same time.
518. Semi-conservative replication
Each strand of the original DNA becomes the template strand for the new DNA strand.
519. Semi-discontinuous
Leading Strand is replicated continuously whereas the lagging strand is replicated in segments called Okazaki fragments.
520. DNA polymerase
Reads the template strand 3'->5' but synthesizes the NEW strand 5'->3' (new nucleotides are added on to the 3' end of the sugar preceding it).
521. Describe the process of DNA replication
Starts at the origin of replication...it opens up into a replication bubble...replication is occurring in 4 separate areas inside this bubble at the same time! Why?...DNA polymerase III requires an RNA primer to be already annealed to the DNA strand in order to begin synthesizing...helicase goes in front of DNA polymerase III and unwinds the DNA to allow room for replication...DNA polymerase I has 5' -> 3' exonuclease activity so it comes in at the end and plows off all the primers (plus maybe a few more nucleotides) and replaces them with DNA nucleotides...and then ligase comes in a binds the okazaki fragments together...throughout this whole process, the strain on DNA caused by the unwinding DNA is released by topoisomerases and gyrases.
522. Telomerase
Has its own RNA template that it uses to do reverse transcriptase and create DNA nucleotides to add on to the end of a DNA polymer to protect it from degradation.
523. RNA vs DNA
• RNA has a 2' hydroxyl group and DNA doesn't
• RNA is usually single-stranded and DNA is usually double-stranded
• Uracil (RNA) vs. Thymine (DNA)
• RNA exists in 3 forms vs. DNA which is in 1 form
• RNA exits the nucleus but DNA does not
524. Transcription process
• 1. RNA polymerase attaches to the promotor region of the DNA template strand.
• 2. DNA is unwound to form a replication bubble. 3. RNA polymerase starts synthesizing the pre-mRNA via RNA complementary base pairing.
• 3. The replication bubble continues down the DNA with the DNA behind it binding back together.
• 4. Once the RNA polymerase gets to the termination sequence, it releases from the template strand as well as the pre-mRNA.
• 5. Splicesome splices out introns in pre-MRA.
• 6. Poly-A-tail attached to 3' end.
• 7. 5' cap added. 8. mRNA is finally ready to be shipped out of the nucleus.
525. Names for the strand of DNA being TRANSCRIBED
• Anti-sense strand
• Anti-coding strand
• Template strand
526. Names for the strand of DNA NOT being TRANSCRIBED
• Coding Strand
• Sense Strand
• these are EXACTLY the same as the RNA strand but with thymine instead of Uracil.
• Watch out for the 5'3' convention of writing RNA!
527. 3 ways to regulate Transcription
1) Rate of transcription-> RNA has a short half-life so genes must be constantly transcribed in order to continue protein production

2) Activators and Repressors-> certain substances upregulate transciption and others downregulate it...(Classify the following as activators or repressors for the Lac operon...lactose, glucose, Lac I protein, cAMP, CAP)

3) Permanent or Semi-permanent Repression-> methylation or other covalent modification that prevents transcription (When a promoter region of DNA is methylated it often silences the genes)
528. Special aspects about the genetic code
1) Degenerative= more than one codon for a single amino acid (the 3' nucleotide in the codon and the 5' nucleotide in the anticodon do NOT always need to match perfectly...wobble base pairs)

2) Unambiguous= there is never more than one amino acid coded for by a particular codon
529. 1 start codon and 3 stop codons
• Start: AUG (methionine)
• Stop: UAA, UAG, UGA
530. Codons vs. Anticodons
Codons are the 3-nucleotide segments on the mRNA strand (they are read in the 5'->3' direction)...anti-codons are the 3-nucleotide segments that are on the complementary tRNA that brings in the appropriate nucleotide (they are also read in the 5'->3' direction but remember that they are complementary and pair up with codons in the anti-parallel direction).
531. Translation process
Ribosome binds upstream of the initial codon and reads the mRNA strand in the 5'->3' direction(the region btwn the ribosome binding site and the intial codon is called the 5' UTR)...when it reaches the Start codon it begins bringing in tRNA's with the appropriate amino acids and catalyzes the polymerization of a polypeptide.
532. Location of translation
Cytoplasm

(mRNA protein)
533. Germ cells vs. Somatic cells
Germ cells produce gametes (meiosis) whereas Somatic cells produce normal cells (mitosis) throughout the body.

Germ (sex) cells much worse because they can be transmitted to offspring while somatic (body) cells don't get transmitted.
534. 6 types of DNA mutations
• 1) Point= a single nucleotide is changed
• 2) Missense mutation= a single nucleotide is changed that causes a new codon in the mRNA strand that codes for a different amino acid
• 3) Nonsense mutation= a single nucleotide is changed that causes a premature stop codon
• 4) Neutral Mutation= the mutation has NO effect on the individual's fitness (the amino acid might still be the same or it might be different but still have none to very little effect on protein function and structure and thus little effect on the organism's fitness)
• 5) Silent mutation= a mutation that has NO effect on the amino acids of the protein...it might be a mutation that creates a new codon that codes for the same protein or it might be a mutation in an intron
• 6) Frameshift mutation= an insertion or deletion causes a shift in the reading frame so that everything after it is new or distorted codons
535. Metastasis
Spread of diseased cells from one area of the body to another.
536. Proto-oncogene
Proto-oncogenes are genes that help regulate cell growth.
537. Oncogene
A gene that has been mutated so that its products, in one way or another, cause cancer
538. True breeding
Homozygous for a given trait (may be either dominant or recessive).
539. P1, F1, F2 generations
• P1 = you
540. Alleles
Alternate forms of the same gene.
541. Mutagen vs Carcinogen
Both cause mutations but carcinogens always cause cancer while mutagens may be benign. All carcinogens are mutagens but not all mutagens are carcinogens.
542. Law of Segregation
Alleles segregate independently of one another when forming gametes.

Homologous pairs divide (1 to each gamete) during meiosis.
543. Law of Independent Assortment
Genes located on different chromosomes assort independently.

When homologous pairs line up on the metaphase plate they arrange themselves in a random fashion.
544. Important MCAT genetics convention
Whenever the genotype of an individual is not stated you should assume that it is HOMOZYGOUS DOMINANT!!!!...if the individual is a carrier or is affected (homozygous recessive usually) they will tell you.
545. Penetrance
The number of individuals in the population carrying the allele who actually express the phenotype.
546. Expressivity
The varying expression of disease symptoms despite identical genotypes.
547. Polygenic
A characteristic/trait for which the phenotype depends on many genes to help dictate it.
548. Pleiotrophy
A single allele that affects many traits.
549. Mosaicim
When cells within the same person have different genetic make-up.
550. Genetic imprinting
When expression of a gene depends on the parent of origin. Sometimes both copies of a gene are not expressed and the "active" gene is dependent on who the gene came from.
551. Tissue types
• Epithelial
• Nervous
• Connective
• Muscle
552. Tissue Organization
Organ systems > Organs > Tissues > Cells
553. Communication characteristics of the endocrine system
Slow, general, long-lasting
554. Communication characteristics of the nervous system
Fast, specific, short-lived
555. Communication characteristics of the paracrine system
Local mediator hormones only
556. Diploid number
Having a pair of each type of chromosome, so that the basic chromosome number is doubled. 46 in humans.
557. Haploid number
The haploid number is the number of chromosomes in a gamete of an individual. This is distinct from the monoploid number (x), which is the number of unique chromosomes in a single complete set. Gametes (sperm, and ova) are haploid cells.
558. Mitosis yields:
Two genetically identical, diploid daughter cells.
559. Meiosis yields:
Four genetically distinct, haploid daughter cells.
560. Lipid definition
Any biomolecule soluble in non-polar solvents and insoluble in polar solvents.
561. Triacylglycerol (triglyceride) structure
562. Description of basic steroid structure
All are four-ringed structures.
563. Definition of amphipathic
An amphipathic substance is one that is polar at one end of the molecule (hydrophilic) and nonpolar (hydrophobic) at the other.
564. Essential vs Non-Essential
Essential means that your body cannot synthesize it and therefor must get it from its environment- sun, food, etc.
565. 6 things responsible for the tertiary structure of proteins
• Disulfide bonds (covalent)
• Ionic bonds (salt bridge)
• Hydrophobic interactions
• Hydroden bonding
• Proline turns
• Van der Waals' forces
566. Determines the protein folding structure
1˚ structure (amino acid sequence)
567. Different protein denaturing agents and what they affect
• Acid- electrostatic bonds
• Heat- all forces
• Urea- hydrogen bonds
• Mercaptoethanol- disulfide bonds

To refold simply remove the denaturing agent
568. Between which parts of how many AAs are the hydrogen bonds forming an alpha helix?
Between the CO group of an AA and the NH group of the AA four (4) residues ahead of it; the helix is right-handed.
569. D-Fructose
570. D-Glucose
571. Digestible to humans α vs β
• α - animals
• β - bacteria
572. Three components of nucleotides
• 1) Nitrogenous Base
• 2) 5-C sugar
• 3) Phosphate Group

Hydroxyl group always at 3' carbon. base at 1' carbon. phosphate at 5' carbon.
573. Examples of Nucleotides
574. Vitamins
Organic compoundmade in plants and animals vulnerable to heat.
575. Examples of Vitamins
• Riboflavin
• Thiamine
• Cobalamin
576. Minerals
• Inorganic compounds (often metals).
• Found in soil and water not vulnerable to heat.
577. -tase vs. -ase?
• -ase = enzyme
• -tase = ATP-requiring enzyme
578. Two important classifications of vitamins
• Water-soluble
• Fat-soluble
579. Induced fit theory
Theory of enzyme specificity. substrate plays role in final shape of enzyme and that enzyme is partially flexible.
580. Lock and key theory
Only the correct key will activate the lock. very specific.
581. Coenzyme
Non-protein species NOT permanently attached to the enzyme but required by the enzyme to function.
582. Prosthetic group
Non-protein species permanently attached to the enzyme and required by the enzyme to function.
583. Bidirectional Replication
Replication occurs on both the leading strand and the lagging strand at the same time.
584. Semi-conservative replication
Each strand of the original DNA becomes the template strand for the new DNA strand.
585. Semi-discontinuous
Leading Strand is replicated continuously whereas the lagging strand is replicated in segments called Okazaki fragments.
586. DNA polymerase
Reads the template strand 3'->5' but synthesizes the NEW strand 5'->3' (new nucleotides are added on to the 3' end of the sugar preceding it).
587. Describe the process of DNA replication
Starts at the origin of replication...it opens up into a replication bubble...replication is occurring in 4 separate areas inside this bubble at the same time! Why?...DNA polymerase III requires an RNA primer to be already annealed to the DNA strand in order to begin synthesizing...helicase goes in front of DNA polymerase III and unwinds the DNA to allow room for replication...DNA polymerase I has 5' -> 3' exonuclease activity so it comes in at the end and plows off all the primers (plus maybe a few more nucleotides) and replaces them with DNA nucleotides...and then ligase comes in a binds the okazaki fragments together...throughout this whole process, the strain on DNA caused by the unwinding DNA is released by topoisomerases and gyrases.
588. Telomerase
Has its own RNA template that it uses to do reverse transcriptase and create DNA nucleotides to add on to the end of a DNA polymer to protect it from degradation.
589. RNA vs DNA
• RNA has a 2' hydroxyl group and DNA doesn't
• RNA is usually single-stranded and DNA is usually double-stranded
• Uracil (RNA) vs. Thymine (DNA)
• RNA exists in 3 forms vs. DNA which is in 1 form
• RNA exits the nucleus but DNA does not
590. Transcription process
• 1. RNA polymerase attaches to the promotor region of the DNA template strand.
• 2. DNA is unwound to form a replication bubble. 3. RNA polymerase starts synthesizing the pre-mRNA via RNA complementary base pairing.
• 3. The replication bubble continues down the DNA with the DNA behind it binding back together.
• 4. Once the RNA polymerase gets to the termination sequence, it releases from the template strand as well as the pre-mRNA.
• 5. Splicesome splices out introns in pre-MRA.
• 6. Poly-A-tail attached to 3' end.
• 7. 5' cap added. 8. mRNA is finally ready to be shipped out of the nucleus.
591. Names for the strand of DNA being TRANSCRIBED
• Anti-sense strand
• Anti-coding strand
• Template strand
592. Names for the strand of DNA NOT being TRANSCRIBED
• Coding Strand
• Sense Strand
• these are EXACTLY the same as the RNA strand but with thymine instead of Uracil.
• Watch out for the 5'3' convention of writing RNA!
593. 3 ways to regulate Transcription
1) Rate of transcription-> RNA has a short half-life so genes must be constantly transcribed in order to continue protein production

2) Activators and Repressors-> certain substances upregulate transciption and others downregulate it...(Classify the following as activators or repressors for the Lac operon...lactose, glucose, Lac I protein, cAMP, CAP)

3) Permanent or Semi-permanent Repression-> methylation or other covalent modification that prevents transcription (When a promoter region of DNA is methylated it often silences the genes)
594. Special aspects about the genetic code
1) Degenerative= more than one codon for a single amino acid (the 3' nucleotide in the codon and the 5' nucleotide in the anticodon do NOT always need to match perfectly...wobble base pairs)

2) Unambiguous= there is never more than one amino acid coded for by a particular codon
595. 1 start codon and 3 stop codons
• Start: AUG (methionine)
• Stop: UAA, UAG, UGA
596. Codons vs. Anticodons
Codons are the 3-nucleotide segments on the mRNA strand (they are read in the 5'->3' direction)...anti-codons are the 3-nucleotide segments that are on the complementary tRNA that brings in the appropriate nucleotide (they are also read in the 5'->3' direction but remember that they are complementary and pair up with codons in the anti-parallel direction).
597. Translation process
Ribosome binds upstream of the initial codon and reads the mRNA strand in the 5'->3' direction(the region btwn the ribosome binding site and the intial codon is called the 5' UTR)...when it reaches the Start codon it begins bringing in tRNA's with the appropriate amino acids and catalyzes the polymerization of a polypeptide.
598. Location of translation
Cytoplasm

(mRNA protein)
599. Germ cells vs. Somatic cells
Germ cells produce gametes (meiosis) whereas Somatic cells produce normal cells (mitosis) throughout the body.

Germ (sex) cells much worse because they can be transmitted to offspring while somatic (body) cells don't get transmitted.
600. 6 types of DNA mutations
• 1) Point= a single nucleotide is changed
• 2) Missense mutation= a single nucleotide is changed that causes a new codon in the mRNA strand that codes for a different amino acid
• 3) Nonsense mutation= a single nucleotide is changed that causes a premature stop codon
• 4) Neutral Mutation= the mutation has NO effect on the individual's fitness (the amino acid might still be the same or it might be different but still have none to very little effect on protein function and structure and thus little effect on the organism's fitness)
• 5) Silent mutation= a mutation that has NO effect on the amino acids of the protein...it might be a mutation that creates a new codon that codes for the same protein or it might be a mutation in an intron
• 6) Frameshift mutation= an insertion or deletion causes a shift in the reading frame so that everything after it is new or distorted codons
601. Metastasis
Spread of diseased cells from one area of the body to another.
602. Proto-oncogene
Proto-oncogenes are genes that help regulate cell growth.
603. Oncogene
A gene that has been mutated so that its products, in one way or another, cause cancer
604. True breeding
Homozygous for a given trait (may be either dominant or recessive).
605. P1, F1, F2 generations
• P1 = you
606. Alleles
Alternate forms of the same gene.
607. Mutagen vs Carcinogen
Both cause mutations but carcinogens always cause cancer while mutagens may be benign. All carcinogens are mutagens but not all mutagens are carcinogens.
608. Law of Segregation
Alleles segregate independently of one another when forming gametes.

Homologous pairs divide (1 to each gamete) during meiosis.
609. Law of Independent Assortment
Genes located on different chromosomes assort independently.

When homologous pairs line up on the metaphase plate they arrange themselves in a random fashion.
610. Important MCAT genetics convention
Whenever the genotype of an individual is not stated you should assume that it is HOMOZYGOUS DOMINANT!!!!...if the individual is a carrier or is affected (homozygous recessive usually) they will tell you.
611. Penetrance
The number of individuals in the population carrying the allele who actually express the phenotype.
612. Expressivity
The varying expression of disease symptoms despite identical genotypes.
613. Polygenic
A characteristic/trait for which the phenotype depends on many genes to help dictate it.
614. Pleiotrophy
A single allele that affects many traits.
615. Mosaicim
When cells within the same person have different genetic make-up.
616. Genetic imprinting
When expression of a gene depends on the parent of origin. Sometimes both copies of a gene are not expressed and the "active" gene is dependent on who the gene came from.
617. Tissue types
• Epithelial
• Nervous
• Connective
• Muscle
618. Tissue Organization
Organ systems > Organs > Tissues > Cells
619. Communication characteristics of the endocrine system
Slow, general, long-lasting
620. Communication characteristics of the nervous system
Fast, specific, short-lived
621. Communication characteristics of the paracrine system
Local mediator hormones only
622. Diploid number
Having a pair of each type of chromosome, so that the basic chromosome number is doubled. 46 in humans.
623. Haploid number
The haploid number is the number of chromosomes in a gamete of an individual. This is distinct from the monoploid number (x), which is the number of unique chromosomes in a single complete set. Gametes (sperm, and ova) are haploid cells.
624. Mitosis yields:
Two genetically identical, diploid daughter cells.
625. Meiosis yields:
Four genetically distinct, haploid daughter cells.
626. Lipid definition
Any biomolecule soluble in non-polar solvents and insoluble in polar solvents.

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