Cumulative Review 2.txt

Card Set Information

Cumulative Review 2.txt
2012-08-02 15:22:36
Cum Review

Cum. Review 2
Show Answers:

  1. Triacylglycerol (triglyceride) structure
  2. Description of basic steroid structure
    All are four-ringed structures.
  3. Definition of amphipathic
    An amphipathic substance is one that is polar at one end of the molecule (hydrophilic) and nonpolar (hydrophobic) at the other.
  4. Essential vs Non-Essential
    Essential means that your body cannot synthesize it and therefor must get it from its environment- sun, food, etc.
  5. 6 things responsible for the tertiary structure of proteins
    • Disulfide bonds (covalent)
    • Ionic bonds (salt bridge)
    • Hydrophobic interactions
    • Hydroden bonding
    • Proline turns
    • Van der Waals' forces
  6. Determines the protein folding structure
    1˚ structure (amino acid sequence)
  7. Different protein denaturing agents and what they affect
    • Acid- electrostatic bonds
    • Heat- all forces
    • Urea- hydrogen bonds
    • Mercaptoethanol- disulfide bonds

    To refold simply remove the denaturing agent
  8. Between which parts of how many AAs are the hydrogen bonds forming an alpha helix?
    Between the CO group of an AA and the NH group of the AA four (4) residues ahead of it; the helix is right-handed.
  9. D-Fructose
  10. D-Glucose
  11. Digestible to humans α vs β
    • α - animals
    • β - bacteria
  12. Three components of nucleotides
    • 1) Nitrogenous Base
    • 2) 5-C sugar
    • 3) Phosphate Group

    Hydroxyl group always at 3' carbon. base at 1' carbon. phosphate at 5' carbon.
  13. Examples of Nucleotides
    NADH, ATP, DNA, RNA, etc.
  14. Vitamins
    Organic compound made in plants and animals vulnerable to heat.
  15. Examples of Vitamins
    • Riboflavin
    • Thiamine
    • Cobalamin
  16. Minerals
    • Inorganic compounds (often metals).
    • Found in soil and water not vulnerable to heat.
  17. -tase vs. -ase?
    • -ase = enzyme
    • -tase = ATP-requiring enzyme
  18. Two important classifications of vitamins
    • Water-soluble
    • Fat-soluble
  19. Induced fit theory
    Theory of enzyme specificity. substrate plays role in final shape of enzyme and that enzyme is partially flexible.
  20. Lock and key theory
    Only the correct key will activate the lock. very specific.
  21. Coenzyme
    Non-protein species NOT permanently attached to the enzyme but required by the enzyme to function.
  22. Prosthetic group
    Non-protein species permanently attached to the enzyme and required by the enzyme to function.
  23. Acidic Amino Acids
    • Aspartic Acid
    • Glutamic Acid
  24. Basic Amino Acids
    • Arginine
    • Histidine
    • Lysine
  25. Amino acids with a (+) charge
    Arginine, Histidine, Lysine
  26. Amino acids with a (-) charge
    Aspartic acid, Glutamic acid
  27. Hydroxide
  28. Nitrate
  29. Nitrite
  30. Chlorate
  31. Chlorite
  32. Hypochlorite
  33. Perchlorate
  34. Carbonate
  35. Bicarbonate
  36. Ammonia
  37. Ammonium
  38. Sulfate
  39. Phosphate
  40. Manganate
  41. Cyanide

  42. Gravity definition
    A field that exists between any two objects with mass.
  43. Field definition
    An invisible influence that can exert a force on a mass or charge.
  44. Universal Law of Gravitation (force due to gravity)

    (In space)

    F = mg

    (Near earth)
  45. Formula for gravity, strength of gravitational field, acceleration due to gravity
  46. Gravitational Potential Energy

    (In space)

    PE = mgh

    (Near earth)
  47. Friction facts
    • Friction opposes sliding not motion.
    • If there is sliding, it's kinetic friction; if there's no sliding, it's static friction.
    • Static µ is always greater than kinetic µ.
    • Surface area does not increase friction when the mass is the same.
  48. Force due to friction formula
    Ff = µ(s/k)FN

    Ff = µ(s/k)mgcos
  49. Force down an inclined plane formula
    F = mgsin
  50. Normal force on an inclined plane formula
    FN = mgcos
  51. Velocity at the base of an inclined plane
    Vf = √(2gh)
  52. Hooke's Law
    F = k∆x

    • x - displacement
    • k - spring constant
  53. Range (horizontal distance traveled) formula

    • k - spring constant
    • x - displacement
  54. Simple Harmonic Motion formulas
    T = 2π√(m/k)

    (mass on a spring)

    T = 2π√(L/g)


    • T - period (time/wave)
    • m - mass
    • k - spring constant
    • L - length of pendulum
    • g - gravity
  55. Equililbrium terms
    • Terminal velocity
    • Constant velocity
    • Objects at rest
    • Balanced fulcrums or boards on strings
    • Objects floating in liquid
  56. Torque and lever arms
    • T = F
    • T = mg
    • T = Frsin

    • - lever arm
    • r - distance between the force and the point of rotation.
    • rsin - always equals , but r = only when = 90˚
  57. Solving for systems in and not in equilibrium
    Equilibrium - list all the forces and put them equal to one another.

    Not Equilibrium - list all the forces and add "ma" to the loosing side.
  58. Circular motion formula
  59. Centripetal vs. Centrifugal
    If a string is pulling a ball into a circular motion, the string's force on the ball is centripetal and the ball's force on the string is centrifugal.

    Centrifugal does not exist.
  60. Angular motion formulas

    • - angular frequency (rad/s)
    • v - tangential velocity (m/s)
    • r - radius (m)
    • f - frequency (Hz)

    For the MCAT angular frequency and angular velocity are synonymous.
  61. Rotational equilibrium
    • An object is in rotational equilibrium if:
    • 1. It is NOT rotataing
    • 2. It is rotating with a constant angular velocity/frequency
  62. Momentum

    momentum is inertia increased by velocity and is always conserved (remains constant) in an isolated system.
  63. Impulse
    • Impulse = ∆
    • Impulse = m∆v
    • Impulse = Favgt

    • If there is no change in velocity, there can be no impulse.
    • The greater the change in velocity the greater the change in impulse.
  64. Elastic Collisions
    • (KE1 + KE2)before = (KE1 + KE2)after
    • In elastic collisions momentum and energy are both conserved.
  65. Inelastic Collisions
    m1v1 + m2v2 = m1v1 + m2v2

    In inelastic collisions momentum is conserved but energy is not. For perfectly inelastic collisions the equations becomes:

    m1v1 + m2v2 = (m1 + m2)v3
  66. Stress
  67. Strain
    ∆dimension/original dimension
  68. Modulus of elasticity (ME)

    • Young's modulus - simultaneous pushing or pulling, perfectly lined up with one another.
    • Shear modulus - simultaneous pushing or pulling not perfectly lined up.
    • Bulk modulus - simultaneous compression from all sides.
  69. Thermal expansion formula
    ∆L = Lo∆T

    • T - temperature
    • L - length in inches
    • - coefficient of thermal expansion
  70. Internal energy
    The energy of internal vibrations of molecules or atoms within a system.
  71. Heat energy
    Energy dissipated as heat. On the MCAT this usually means heat dissipated from a collision.

    Heat energy and internal energy are almost synonymous.
  72. Chemical energy
    The energy contained within chemical bonds, or the energy stored/released due to the separation and/or flow of electrons.
  73. Mechanical energy
    ME = KE + PE
  74. Work formulas
    • W = ∆Energy
    • W = Fdcos

    Units - Joules () or ()
  75. Atmospheric Pressure
    Force per unit area exerted upon a surface by the weight of the air above that surface in the atmosphere.
  76. Fluid Pressure
    Force exerted by a fluid on a point equal to the density of the fluid times the depth.
  77. Gauge Pressure
    The pressure difference between a system and the surrounding atmosphere.
  78. 1 atm equivalents
    • 760 torr
    • 760 mmHg
    • 101 kPa
    • 101,000 Pa
    • 14.7 psi
  79. General Pressure formula
    P = F/A

    Pressure = Force / Area
  80. Fluid Pressure formula
    P = gh

    •  - fluid density
    • g - gravity
    • h - height of fluid
  81. Specific Gravity formula
    SG = Dsubstance/DH2O

    D = density
  82. Volume measurements of water
    1cm3 = 1mL
  83. Mass/density of water
    1L = 1kg

    1mL = 1gram

    1000 kg/m3

    1.0 g/cm3 
  84. For objects floating in fluid, the fraction submerged =
    The ratio of the density of the object to the density of the liquid.
  85. Archimede's Principle
    The buoyant force is exactly equal to the weight of the displaced fluid.
  86. Buoyancy formula
    Fbuoyant = vg

    • = fluid density
    • v = volume of displaced fluid
    • g = gravity
  87. Apparent Weight
    The apparent weight of a submerged object is the actual weight minus the buoyant force.

    The apparent weight gives us 1) the buoyant force and 2) the weight of that volume of fluid.
  88. Flow Rate formula
    • Q = AV
    • Q = flow
    • A = cross-sectional area of tube (m2)
    • V = velocity of the fluid (m/s)

    Application (cardiac output = stroke volume x heart rate)
  89. Bernoulli's Equation
    K = P + gh + 1/2 v2

    • P = random kinetic energy of the fluid molecules
    • gh = the gravitational potential energy of the fluid
    • 1/2v2 = the energy due to moving fluid molecules
    • K = a constant
  90. Velocity of H2O exiting a spigot formula
    v = √(2gh)
  91. Surface Tension
    The intensity of intermolecular forces per unit length at the surface of a liquid.
  92. Adhesion
    An attraction between unlike particles.
  93. Cohesion
    An attraction between particles of the same kind.
  94. Charge magnitude of an electron
    e- = 1.6 E-19 C
  95. Current flows...
    From positive (+) to negative (–)
  96. Electrons flow...
    From negative (–) to positive (+)
  97. What is current?
    The flow of eletrons from areas of higher density (where they strongly repel each other) to areas of lower density (where there is less repulsion).
  98. Electric Field
    Field = an invisible influence that can exert a force on a mass or charge.
  99. Point Charge Field
    Equates to "real" gravity or gravity in space.
  100. Constant Electric Field
    Equate to "assumed" gravity or gravity near earth.
  101. Electric field equivalent to "g" gravity
    E - Strength of electric field
  102. Electric field equivalent to "G" gravity constant
    K - constant
  103. Electric field equivalent to "h" height
    r - radius or distance
  104. Electric field equivalent to "m" inertial component
    q - charge
  105. Strength of an e-field formula
    E = V/d

    • E - strength of an electric field
    • V - voltage
    • d - distance
  106. Voltage for point charge e-field formula
    V = Kq/r

    • V - voltage
    • K - constant
    • r - radius
  107. Voltage formula
    V = PE/q

    Voltage is equal to potential energy over charge
  108. Resistance formula
    R = pL/A

    • p - resistivity
    • L - length
    • A - cross-sectional area
  109. Capacitance formula
    U = 1/2 CV2

    U - PE

    C - capacitance

    V - voltage

    C = Q/V

    Q - charge
  110. Dielectric characteristics
    • Insulator
    • Polarizable
    • Resistor
    • Makes more charge build up on the plates
  111. Variables that affect capacitance
    • Plate area (directly related)
    • Plate thickness (no effect)
    • Distance between plates (inversely related)
    • Strength of dielectric (directly related)
  112. Capacitor charge vs. time graph
  113. Conceptual ideas of a battery
    • Positive terminal has highest electric potential.
    • Electrons build up on negative terminal and move to positive.
  114. Conceptual ideas of a resistor
    • There is always a voltage drop across any resistor.
    • Current through a resistor is inversely related to resistance. 2x resistance = 1/2 current.
  115. Solving circuits
    • Must be simplified, eg. no more than one of each component.
    • 1. Resistors in series: add directly
    • 2. Resistors in parallel: add the inverses and take the inverse
    • 3. Capacitors in series: add the inverses and take the inverse
    • 4. Capacitors in parallel: add directly
    • 5. Batteries in series: add directly
    • 6. Batteries in parallel: total voltage = the highest voltage of any one of the batteries in parallel
  116. Ohm's Law
    V = IR

    • V - voltage
    • I - current
    • R - resistance
  117. Electric power formula
    P = IV

    P - power
  118. AC vs. DC
    • Alternating current is created by a generator and can be represented by a sine wave.
    • Direct current is created by a battery.
  119. Fmagnet on a charged particle formula
    F = qvBsin

    • F - force
    • q - charge
    • v - voltage
    • B - magnetic field 
  120. 1/2
  121. 1/3
  122. 1/4
  123. 1/5
  124. 1/8
  125. Square Root 1
  126. Square Root 2
  127. Square Root 3
  128. Square Root 4
  129. Square Root 5
  130. Square Root 6
  131. Square Root 7
  132. Square Root 8
  133. Square Root 9
  134. Square Root 10
  135. Square Root 11
  136. Square Root 12
  137. Square Root 13
  138. Square Root 14
  139. Square Root 15
  140. Decimal shift larger
    To the left
  141. Decimal shift smaller
    To the right
  142. Rounded value of π
  143. Rounded value of gravity
    10 m/s^2
  144. Sine 0˚
  145. Sine 30˚
  146. Sine 45˚
  147. Sine 60˚
  148. Sine 90˚
  149. Cosine 0˚
  150. Cosine 30˚
  151. Cosine 45˚
  152. Cosine 60˚
  153. Cosine 90˚
  154. Area of a circle
    Acircle = πr2
  155. Circumference of a circle
    C = 2πr
  156. Area of a triangle
    Atriangle = 1/2bh
  157. Volume of a sphere
    Volsphere = 4/3πr3
  158. Surface area of a sphere
    Asphere = 4πr2
  159. Degrees to radians
    • π radians = 180˚
    • 2π radians = 360˚
    • 6 rads ≈ to one rotation (Ex. 12 rad/s ≈ 2 revolutions/s)
  160. deci-
  161. milli-
  162. micro-
  163. nano-
  164. pico-
  165. femto-
  166. deca-
  167. hecto-
  168. kilo-
  169. mega-
  170. giga-
  171. tera-
  172. Average velocity
    Vavg = (V1 + V2) / 2
  173. Determining height reached
    Time to reach peak * average velocity
  174. Determining horizontal distance
    Total time in air * X component of Vinitial
  175. Net force = 0 means...
    No acceleration. Can however have velocity but a = 0
  176. If volume changes, is work being done?
  177. Tension is...
  178. Vector attributes
    Has both magnitude and direction.
  179. Scalar attributes
    Has only magnitude
  180. Newton's first law
    The velocity of a body remains constant unless the body is acted upon by an external force.
  181. Newton's second law
  182. Newton's third law
    For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
  183. Inertia definition
    The ability of an object to resist a change to its velocity.
  184. Center of Mass formula
    Cmass = (r1m1 + r2m2 + r3m3...)/mtotal

    r - the displacement vector between a reference point and each vector.
  185. Center of gravity
    At the center of mass.
  186. Center of buoyancy
    The geometric center, irrespective of the center of mass.
  187. "Constant Velocity" or " Constant Speed" means
    • No acceleration
    • No NET force
    • All forces sum to zero
    • No change in direction
    • The object is in equilibrium
  188. Distance or height traveled formula
    Distance = rate * time
  189. Range (horizontal distance traveled) formula
    Range = Vx * time
  190. When facing projectiles think:
    • Horizontal velocity never changes (ignoring wind resistance)
    • Horizontal acceleration always = 0
    • Vertical acceleration always = 10 m/s2
    • Vertical behavior is always symmetrical (upward = downward)
    • Time in the air depends on the vertical component of velocity only.
    • Range depends on both the vertical and horizontal components.
    • Time is always the same for both the x and y components of the motion.
  191. Formula for displacement in projectile motion
    X = 1/2at2
  192. Formula for final velocity when only height is given
    V = √(2gh)
  193. Formula for "round trip" or total time in air
    tair = 2V/g

    V must be the vertical component of initial velocity
  194. The effect of surface area on air resistance
    Greater surface area = more air resistance
  195. The effect of shape on air resistance
    Less aerodynamic = more air resistance
  196. The effect of contour on air resistance
    Rough surface = more air resistance
  197. The effect of velocity on air resistance
    Greater velocity = more air resistance
  198. Main Idea
    The purpose of the passage, the reason for which the author wrote the piece. What the author is "getting at".
  199. Tone
    Requires observation more than inference.
  200. According to the passage means...
    The opinions, attitudes, likes, dislikes, beliefs, and character traits of the author.
  201. Points in identifying contrasting theories
    • 1. Theories hypothesis
    • 2. Viewpoints philosophies
    • 3. Authorities or critics
    • 4. Authors or their works
    • 5. Artists or their works
    • 6. Historical figures
    • 7. Experiments
    • 8. Opinions
    • 9. Forms of government or institutions
    • 10. Objects or subjects
  202. Inference and logic
    Mild and simple jumps from information given to information logically arrived at
  203. Big picture
    Step back and get the larger idea. DON'T consentrate on details!
  204. Site of lipid synthesis
    Endoplasmic reticulum
  205. Site of lipid metabolism
  206. Structure of mitochondrion
  207. Cell cycle
  208. Where DNA is found
    Nucleus. DNA cannot leave and is only found here. There is however a small amount found in the mitochondria.
  209. Nucleolus
    Site of rRNA transcription and ribosome assembly.
  210. Rough ER
    Covered with ribosomes; all proteins not bound for the cytosol are made here.
  211. Smooth ER
    Lipid synthesis and modification. NOT LIPID METABOLISM.
  212. Golgi Apparatus
    Cellular "post office;" organize, package, modify, excrete, etc.
  213. Mitochondria
    Have their own DNA with variations to the nuclear genetic code passed through the maternal line only.

    Place of lipid metabolism.

    Theory suggests they evolved from aerobic prokaryotes in symbiosis with a eukaryotic cell.
  214. Centrioles/Centrosome
    The centrosome is an amorphous area of proteins and nucleating factors within which the centrioles are located. It organizes microtubules, flagella and cilia; it also plays a key role in cell division.
  215. Lysosome
    • pH of 5
    • Digests cell parts
    • Fuses with phagocytotic vesicles
    • Participates in cell death (apoptosis)
    • Forms by budding off from the Golgi
  216. Peroxisome
    • Self-replicates
    • Detoxifies chemicals
    • Participates in lipid metabolism
  217. Tubulin
    A protein that is the main constituent of microtubules.
  218. Cytoskeleton
    Microscopic network of filaments that give shape to cells.
  219. Spindle Apparatus
    Segregates chromosomes during cell division.
  220. Actin and Myosin
    Filaments in muscle that provide movement.
  221. In humans, cilia are found exclusively in:
    • Respiratory System (lungs)
    • Nervous System (ependymal cells)
    • Reproductive System (fallopian tubes)
  222. Eukaryotic Flagella
    Whipping motion; microtubules made of tubulin.
  223. Prokaryotic Flagella
    Spinning/rotating motion; simple helices made of flagellin.
  224. Tight Junctions
    Water-proof barriers
  225. Gap Junctions
    Tunnels allowing exchange
  226. Desmosomes
    Strongest cellular junction but are not watertight barriers.
  227. Types of membrane transport
    • Diffusion
    • Facilitated Diffusion
    • Active Transport
    • Secondary Active Transport
  228. Phospholipids
    Major component of all cell membranes that form lipid bilayers. Most phospholipids contain a diglyceride.
  229. Integral Protein
    A protein molecule or protein assembly permanently attached in a biological membrane.
  230. Transport Proteins
    Transport substances such as molecules and ions across the membrane, within the cell, or can be involved in vesicular transport.
  231. Cholesterol
    Organic chemical substance classified as a waxy steroid of fat. Essential structural component of mammalian cell membranes and is required to establish proper membrane permeability and fluidity.
  232. Receptor Proteins
    Signal-receiving molecules embedded in the cell wall.
  233. Exocytosis
    The release of cellular substances contained in cell vesicles by fusion of the vesicular membrane with the plasma membrane and release of the contents to the exterior of the cell.
  234. Endocytosis
    Incorporation of substances into a cell by phagocytosis or pinocytosis.
  235. Phagocytosis
    Cell eating
  236. Pinocytosis
    Cell drinking
  237. Tissue types
    • Epithelial
    • Nervous
    • Connective
    • Muscle
  238. Tissue Organization
    Organ systems > Organs > Tissues > Cells
  239. Communication characteristics of the endocrine system
    Slow, general, long-lasting
  240. Communication characteristics of the nervous system
    Fast, specific, short-lived
  241. Communication characteristics of the paracrine system
    Local mediator hormones only
  242. Diploid number
    Having a pair of each type of chromosome, so that the basic chromosome number is doubled. 46 in humans.
  243. Haploid number
    The haploid number is the number of chromosomes in a gamete of an individual. This is distinct from the monoploid number (x), which is the number of unique chromosomes in a single complete set. Gametes (sperm, and ova) are haploid cells.
  244. Mitosis
  245. Mitosis yields:
    Two genetically identical, diploid daughter cells.
  246. Meiosis
  247. Meiosis yields:
    Four genetically distinct, haploid daughter cells.
  248. Lipid definition
    Any biomolecule soluble in non-polar solvents and insoluble in polar solvents.
  249. Triacylglycerol (triglyceride) structure
  250. Description of basic steroid structure
    All are four-ringed structures.
  251. Definition of amphipathic
    An amphipathic substance is one that is polar at one end of the molecule (hydrophilic) and nonpolar (hydrophobic) at the other.
  252. Alanine (amino acid) structure
  253. Arginine (amino acid) structure
  254. Asparagine (amino acid) structure
  255. Aspartic acid (amino acid) structure
  256. Cysteine (amino acid) structure
  257. Glutamic acid (amino acid) structure
  258. Glutamine (amino acid) structure
  259. Glycine (amino acid) structure
  260. Histidine (amino acid) structure
  261. Isoleucine (amino acid) structure
  262. Leucine (amino acid) structure
  263. Lysine (amino acid) structure
  264. Methionine (amino acid) structure
  265. Phenylalanine (amino acid) structure
  266. Proline (amino acid) structure
  267. Serine (amino acid) structure
  268. Threonine (amino acid) structure
  269. Tryptophan (amino acid) structure
  270. Tyrosine (amino acid) structure
  271. Valine (amino acid) structure
  272. 1 mol (at STP) = ? L
    22.4 L = 1 mol of gas
  273. (PV=nRT) What is the value of R?
  274. pH equivalents
    • 1e-8 = 8pH
    • 1e-6 = 6pH
    • 1e-11 = 11pH
  275. Determining ionic character
    The compound with the greatest difference in electronegativities between the metal and nonmetal has the most ionic character. Electronegativities tend to decrease down a group of the periodic table.
  276. Precession definition
    Precession is the spin of protons, electrons, and neutrons in an atom. For a nonzero precession in the nucleus of an atom, you have to have an uneven number of nucleons.
  277. Determining moles of a substance
    = moles
  278. Determining number of ions
    moles x Avogadro (6.02e23) = # ions
  279. Litmus paper color changes
    • Red Blue in base
    • BlueRed in acid

    No color change either means it is in the opposite solution, or that the solution is neutral.
  280. London dispersion forces (Van der Waals)
    Weak inter and intramolecular forces between non-polar molecules.

    Ex. When The only thing that changes between molecules is their molecular weight, yet a trend developes in boiling points, these forces are responsible.
  281. A pendulum's frequency depends on...
    • Pendulum length.
    • Acceleration of gravity.

    Changing mass has no effect.
  282. Current (I) is equal to...
    Charge (Coulombs) per unit time (seconds).

    Therefore when given current and charge, simply divide current by charge to get frequency of electrons per second.
  283. Autosome definition
    An autosome is a normal chromosome that is not an allosome.

    An allosome is also called a sex chromosome. For example, in humans there are typically 22 pairs of autosomes and one allosome pair.
  284. Nonsense mutation
    A mutation causes a premature stop codon and terminates translation.
  285. Generic definition of a hormone
    Chemical messengers that are secreted by endocrine tissues and are transported by the bloodstream, instead of by ducts, to the target tissues where they alter cellular activity.
  286. Ln of anything less than 1 is...
    A negative number
  287. N/C is equivalent to...
  288. Degrees for perfect destructive interference
  289. Bacteria and Eukaryotic cells are the same in...
    That they both have a form of the electron transport chain.
  290. ATP Synthase is...
    The cyclical "ogger" protein that produces ATP at the end of the electron transport chain.
  291. A great solvent in O-Chem reactions
    Anything ether