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a political philosophy that encompasses various theories of economic organization which advocate either public or direct worker ownership and administration of the means of production and allocation of resources (all aspects of production are controlled by the public/government)
- Karl Marx's political philosophy
- history of humankind is a struggle between social classes
- anti-capitalist (belief that capatalist minorities exploit the working class proletariats)
- proletariats must take over political power and place all productive aspects of society into collective ownership
- second phase of the Russian Revolution
- gave the power to the local soviets dominated by Bolsheviks (Communist)
- led to the Russian Civil War and to the formation of the Soviet Union in 1922
- Leader of the Soviet Communist Party from 1922-1953 (Soviet Union from 1924)
- Stalin launched a command economy, replacing the New Economic Policy of the 1920s with Five-Year Plans and launching a period of rapid industrialization and economic collectivization (similar to Mao's plan in China)
During the late 1930s, Stalin launched the Great Purge (also known as the "Great Terror"), a campaign to purge the Communist Party of people accused of sabotage, terrorism, or treachery; he extended it to the military and other sectors of Soviet society
- Strongly nationalistic
- Strongly/Violently anti-Communist
- Opposed to international organizations
- Elitist and Authoritarian (Hitler, Mussolini)
- Glorified war (promoted Social Darwinism) as a way to strengthen the nation
Fascism in Italy
- Mussolini backed by wealthy industrialists and landowners (b/c of their fear of socialist reforms)
- Lack of faith in Italy’s institutions (failures of WWI, post-war violence) made fascism more appealing
- The Fascists represented a means to stop the socialists and the communists
- Trade unions were banned
- Free press was ended (through takeover by Fascists or censorship)
- Elected local officials were replaced by officials appointed by the central Gov.
- Increased power of arrest and detention w/out trial
Fascism in Germany
- The economic collapse of Germany after 1929 (main reason)
- The fear of communism
- Fascism was not clearly defined, and was easily made to fit any adgenda, especially Hitler's (social darwinism)
- Hitler was supreme within the party and he was taken as the personification of National Socialism
- Strict censorship of the media
- Germany became a one party state
- Act passed by the Reichstag and signed by President Paul von Hindenburg on March 03, 1933
- Eventually allowed Adolph Hitler to gain plenary powers and establish his dictatorship
- "living space"
- a belief in Germany in the early 20th century that Germany needed new land to expand in, especially toward the east. It became a major motivation for Nazi Germany's territorial aggression after 1937
Great Leap Forward
- Communist China's economic and social plan used from 1958 to 1961 which ostensibly aimed to use China's vast population to rapidly transform China from an agrarian economy into a modern communist society through the process of agriculturalization, industrialization, and collectivization
- Mao Zhedong's attempt to create a modern communist society (and world power) that could compete with other societies around the world
- China and the Communist movement
- Mao's "Red Guard"
- People of China holding on to the "old ways" - new, communist China will be better
- Anyone who resists is slaughtered and/or publicly denounced and thrown in jail
- Old traditions fall by the wayside as the Chinese are forced to conform to the new ways - entire country is restructured
- Robert Mugabe begins a movement against white minority rule.
- Anti-western movement - wanted all whites out of power - land reforms "reclaim" African land from the whites and force them out.
- Causes hyper-inflation in the millions of percents - 94% of the population is unemployed
- Legal racial segregation
- enforced by the National Party government in South Africa from 1948-1994
- rights of blacks (majority) were supressed by whites (minority)
- Soviet Union offers aid to other communist countries as a way of creating allies around the world to protect themselves.
- Korea is one of the first to recieve assistance.
- Tried to turn revolutions into communist revolutions.
- Attempt to create a buffer zone to protect themselves for the next war (they believed it would be with the U.S.)
The Cold War
the continuing state of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition existing after World War II (1939–1945), primarily between the Soviet Union and the United States
Cuban Missile Crisis - Russian missiles in Cuba pointed at the United States, and U.S. missiles in Turkey create great tension until negotiations are made to remove both sets of missiles (president Kennedy and Nikita Kruschev)
The Sino-Soviet Alliance
Treaty between the Soviet Union and China around 1945, in which neither country was permitted to attack the other's allies
After the treaty ended, China attacked Vietnam as a response to their invasion of Cambodia
The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties involving the United States and the Soviet Union-the Cold War superpowers—on the issue of armament control. There were two rounds of talks and agreements: SALT I and SALT II.
SALT I set the limit for the number of missiles that each country (Soviet Union and US) could have.
- SALT II was a controversial experiment of negotiations between Jimmy Carter
- and Leonid Brezhnev from 1977 to 1979 between the U.S. and the Soviet
- Union, which sought to curtail the manufacture of strategic nuclear weapons. It was a continuation of the progress made during the SALT I talks.