Hormones of the Endocrine System

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  1. releasing and inhibiting factors (peptides)

    anterior pituitary/modify activity
  2. growth hormone (GH) (peptide)
    Anterior pituitary

    ^ bone and muscle growth, ^ cell turnover rate
  3. prolactin (peptide)
    Anterior pituitary

    mammary gland/milk production
  4. thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (peptide)
    Anterior pituitary - tropic

    thyroid/^ synthesis and release of TH
  5. adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) (peptide)
    Anterior pituitary - tropic

    ^ growth & secretory activity of adrenal ctx
  6. luteinizing hormone (LH) (peptide)
    Anterior pituitary - gonadotropic

    ovary/ovulation, testes/testosterone synth.
  7. follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) (peptide)
    Anterior pituitary - gonadotropic

    ovary/follicle development, testes/spermatogenesis
  8. antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin) (peptide)
    Posterior pituitary

    kidney/water retention
  9. oxytocin (peptide)
    Posterior pituitary

    breast/milk letdown, uterus/contraction
  10. thyroid hormone (TH, thyroxine) (modified aa)

    • child: necessary for physical & mental development;
    • adult: ^ metabolic rate & temp.
  11. calcitonin (peptide)
    Thyroid - thyroid C cells

    bone, kidney; lowers serum [Ca2+]
  12. parathyroid hormone (PTH) (peptide)

    bone, kidney, small intestine/raises serum [Ca2+]
  13. thymosin (children only) (peptide)

    T cell development during childhood
  14. epinephrine (modified aa)
    Adrenal medulla

    sympathetic stress response (rapid)
  15. cortisol ("glucocorticoid") (steroid)
    Adrenal cortex

    longer-term stress response; ^ blood [glucose]; ^ protein catabolism; v inflammation & immunity; other
  16. aldosterone ("mineralocorticoid") (steroid)
    Adrenal cortex

    kidney/^ Na+ reabsorption to ^ BP
  17. sex steroids
    Adrenal cortex

    not normally important, but an adrenal tumor can overproduce these, causing masculinization or feminization
  18. insulin (peptide)
    Endocrine pancreas (islets of Langerhans, beta cells)

    • - absent or ineffective in diabetes mellitus
    • v blood [glucose]/^ glycogen & fat storage
  19. glucagon (peptide)
    Endocrine pancreas (islets of Langerhans, alpha cells)

    ^ blood [glucose]/v glycogen & fat storage
  20. somatostatin (SS) (peptide)
    Endocrine pancreas (islets of Langerhans, delta cells)

    inhibits many digestive processes
  21. testosterone (steroid)

    male characteristics, spermatogenesis
  22. estrogen (steroid)

    female characteristics, endometrial growth
  23. progesterone (steroid)

    endometrial secretion, pregnancy
  24. atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) (peptide)

    kidney/^ urination to v BP
  25. erythropoietin (peptide)

    bone marrow/^ RBC synthesis
Card Set
Hormones of the Endocrine System
Gland, Hormone (class), Target/effect
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