Hormones of the Endocrine System

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Author:
sphingosine
ID:
154153
Filename:
Hormones of the Endocrine System
Updated:
2012-05-16 08:24:28
Tags:
hormone biology
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Description:
Gland, Hormone (class), Target/effect
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  1. releasing and inhibiting factors (peptides)
    Hypothalamus

    anterior pituitary/modify activity
  2. growth hormone (GH) (peptide)
    Anterior pituitary

    ^ bone and muscle growth, ^ cell turnover rate
  3. prolactin (peptide)
    Anterior pituitary

    mammary gland/milk production
  4. thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (peptide)
    Anterior pituitary - tropic

    thyroid/^ synthesis and release of TH
  5. adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) (peptide)
    Anterior pituitary - tropic

    ^ growth & secretory activity of adrenal ctx
  6. luteinizing hormone (LH) (peptide)
    Anterior pituitary - gonadotropic

    ovary/ovulation, testes/testosterone synth.
  7. follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) (peptide)
    Anterior pituitary - gonadotropic

    ovary/follicle development, testes/spermatogenesis
  8. antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin) (peptide)
    Posterior pituitary

    kidney/water retention
  9. oxytocin (peptide)
    Posterior pituitary

    breast/milk letdown, uterus/contraction
  10. thyroid hormone (TH, thyroxine) (modified aa)
    Thyroid

    • child: necessary for physical & mental development;
    • adult: ^ metabolic rate & temp.
  11. calcitonin (peptide)
    Thyroid - thyroid C cells

    bone, kidney; lowers serum [Ca2+]
  12. parathyroid hormone (PTH) (peptide)
    Parathyroids

    bone, kidney, small intestine/raises serum [Ca2+]
  13. thymosin (children only) (peptide)
    Thymus

    T cell development during childhood
  14. epinephrine (modified aa)
    Adrenal medulla

    sympathetic stress response (rapid)
  15. cortisol ("glucocorticoid") (steroid)
    Adrenal cortex

    longer-term stress response; ^ blood [glucose]; ^ protein catabolism; v inflammation & immunity; other
  16. aldosterone ("mineralocorticoid") (steroid)
    Adrenal cortex

    kidney/^ Na+ reabsorption to ^ BP
  17. sex steroids
    Adrenal cortex

    not normally important, but an adrenal tumor can overproduce these, causing masculinization or feminization
  18. insulin (peptide)
    Endocrine pancreas (islets of Langerhans, beta cells)

    • - absent or ineffective in diabetes mellitus
    • v blood [glucose]/^ glycogen & fat storage
  19. glucagon (peptide)
    Endocrine pancreas (islets of Langerhans, alpha cells)

    ^ blood [glucose]/v glycogen & fat storage
  20. somatostatin (SS) (peptide)
    Endocrine pancreas (islets of Langerhans, delta cells)

    inhibits many digestive processes
  21. testosterone (steroid)
    Testes

    male characteristics, spermatogenesis
  22. estrogen (steroid)
    Ovaries/placenta

    female characteristics, endometrial growth
  23. progesterone (steroid)
    Ovaries/placenta

    endometrial secretion, pregnancy
  24. atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) (peptide)
    Heart

    kidney/^ urination to v BP
  25. erythropoietin (peptide)
    Kidney

    bone marrow/^ RBC synthesis

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