FOUNDATIONS

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cherubicsiren
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154166
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FOUNDATIONS
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2012-05-19 13:40:02
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FOUNDATIONS
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FOUNDATIONS CARDS
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  1. Gibbs Free Energy
    ChgG = GhgH - TChgS
  2. Syncytiotrophoblast
    secretes hCG
  3. Decidua Basalis
    maternal component of placenta
  4. Embryo stages
    Zygote -> Morula -> Blastocyst

    • §
    • Blastocyst -> Trophoblast ->
    • placenta

    • §
    • Blastocyst -> Inner Cell Mass ->
    • Epiblast -> 3 derm layers
  5. Teratogens:
    o ACE Inhibitors – renal damage

    o Anti-Cancer

    o Aminoglycosides – Ototoxicity (A Mean Guy hit baby in ear)

    o Carbamazepine – neural tube defects

    o Diethylstilbestrol (DES) – vaginal clear cell carcinoma

    o Folate antagonists – neural tube defects

    o Lithium – Ebsteins anomaly (heart)

    o Phenytoin – retardation, heart defects, Microcephaly

    o Tetracyclines – discolored teeth

    o Thalidomide – phocomelia (limb issues)

    o Valproate – neural tube defects

    o Warfarin – abortion, hemorrhage

    • o Vitamin A – cleft palate, abortion, heart defects (do not supplement) –
    • HOX gene mutation (responsible for Skeletal Development - synpolydactyly
  6. Ectoderm - Describe 3 layers
    • Surface Ectoderm
    • Anterior pituitary, Lens of eye,
    • olfactory epithelium, salivary and sweat glands, mammary glands

    Neuroectoderm (Neural Tube) – The BOSS

    Brain, Retina, CNS cells and neurons


    • Neural Crest Cells – Neuroectoderm
    • Missionaries

    • PNS: ANS, CN’s (Vagus), Sympathetic
    • Ganglia, Dorsal Root Ganglia, Schwann Cells

    Ear: Inner ear bones

    • Eye: anterior chamber, cornea, sclera,
    • Ciliary muscle, iris pigment

    Adrenal Gland: Chromaffin cells

    Mouth: Odontoblasts

    Heart: Aorticopulmonary Septum

    • GI: ENS, Celiac Ganglion,
    • Enterochromaffin cells

    Thyroid: Parafollicular cells

    Skin: Melanocytes
  7. Organogenesis time frame?
    3-8 weeks
  8. Nuclear Localization Signals
    • "Hey PAL, let me in"
    • Allows entry into nuclear envelope
    • Proline
    • Arginine
    • Lysine
  9. Controls G1 to S Phase
    • §
    • Cyclin D – CDK4 – Rb -> synthesis
    • of DNA

    • §
    • Cyclin E – CDK2 -> initiate S phase

    • §
    • Rb and p53
  10. Controls G2 to M phase
    • §
    • Cyclin A – CDK2 – prophase

    • §
    • Cyclin B – CDK1 – initiate mitosis
  11. Targets proteins for lysosomes in the endoplasmic reticulum
    Mannose-6-phosphate
  12. I Cell Disease - Pathogenesis and Symptoms
    • deficient mannose phopsphorylation
    • lysosomal storage disease

    • coarse facial features
    • clouded corneas
    • joint restriction
  13. Cell Trafficking - Golgi modifies what 3? COPI and COPII?
    • Golgi modifies Serine, Asparagine and Threonine
    • COP I - retrograde, COP II anterograde

    one cop runs away, but two cops run toward danger
  14. most common cause of mental retardation in infants
    fetal alcohol syndrome
  15. Microtubule drugs
    • Mebendazole
    • Griseofulvin
    • Vincristine/Vinblastine
    • Paclitaxel
    • Cochicine
  16. Mictrotubule motion - Dynein vs Kinesin
    • Dynein - retrograde
    • Kinesin - anterograde
  17. Chediak Higashi - Pathogenesis and Symptoms
    o Microtubule Polymerization defect

    o Decreased Fusion of Lysosome to Phagosome

    o Albinism, recurrent infections, peripheral neuropathy
  18. Intermediate Filaments
    o Vimentin – connective tissue

    o Desmin – muscle cells

    o Cytokeratin – epithelial cells

    • o Glial Fibrillary Acid Proteins (GFAP)
    • - Neuroglia, Schwann cells, astrocytes

    o Peripherin – Neurons

    o Neurofilaments – Axons

    o Nuclear Lamins – nuclear envelope and DNA
  19. Kartagener Syndrome - Pathogenesis and Symptoms
    • Dynein defect
    • Immobile cilia
    • bronchiectasis, infertility, situs inversus
  20. tyrosine kinase receptor - binds what? describe subunits
    o PDGF and other growth factors

    o Insulin and IGF-I

    • §
    • 2a subunits

    • §
    • 2b subunits – tyrosine kinase activity
  21. involved in transport of endocytosed vesicle from plasma membrane to endosome
    Clathrin
  22. Arachidonic Acid Pathway - Leukotrienes
    Arachidonic Acid -> Lipoxygenase ->Hydroperoxides

    • -> LTB4 (NEUTROPHIL CHEMOTAXIS)
    • ->LTC4, LTD4 (increased bronchial tone)
  23. Arachidonic Acid Pathway - Thromboxane
    Arachidonic Acid -> COX1 and 2 -> Endoperoxidases -> TXA (increased PLATELET AGGREGATION, VASCULAR AND BRONCHIAL TONE)
  24. Arachidonic Acid Pathway - Prostaglandins
    Arachidonic Acid -> COX -> Endoperoxidases -> PGE, PGF (increased UTERINE TONE, decreased VASCULAR TONE, BRONCHIAL TONE)
  25. Arachidonic Acid Pathway - Prostacyclin
    Arachidonic Acid -> COX -> Endoperoxidases -> PGI (decreased PLATELET AGGREGATION, VASCULAR, BRONCHIAL AND UTERINE TONE)
  26. drug inhibits Na+K+ATPase
    Digoxin
  27. Labile cells - No G0 phase, short G1
    skin, hair follicles and bone marrow
  28. CD8 and NK cells use this for inducing apoptosis
    Perforin and Granzyme B
  29. Signs of irreversible cell damage
    • Ca2+ influx
    • Membrane damage
    • Lysosome rupture
    • Pyknosis (nuclear clumping)
    • Karyorrhexis (fragmentation)
    • Karyolysis (nuclear fading)
  30. Cellular byproducts: creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, troponin
    Cardiac cell death
  31. Cellular byproducts: CK, LDH, aldolase
    muscle cell death
  32. Cellular byproducts: AST, ALT, GGT, AlkPhos
    Hepatocyte death
  33. Cellular byproducts: amylase only
    salivary gland death
  34. Cellular byproducts: amylase and lipase
    Pancreatic cell death
  35. Cellular byproducts: LDH, Haptoglobin, bilirubin
    RBC death
  36. Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Pathway for apoptosis
    • Intrinsic - Mitochondria - Cytochrome C, Bcl-2, Bax
    • Extrinsic - TNF Receptor I
  37. expressed on healthy cells to prevent phagocytosis
    CD31
  38. 4 steps in leukocyte extravasation
    • 1. rolling - E and P selectin
    • 2. tight binding - ICAM-1, LFA-1 (integrin)
    • 3. diapedesis - PECAM-1 (squeezing)
    • 4. migration - chemotactic agents (C5a, IL-8, LTB4, Kallikrein) remember CILK
  39. Important in formation of Granulomas
    TNFa
  40. protein made by hepatocytes, increases adhesiveness of leukocytes, elevated in MI, stroke and PAD
    C reactive protein
  41. elevated in osteomyelitis, polymyalgia rheumatica, temporal arteritis, RA, SLE and malignancy
    Elevated ESR
  42. 4 Collagen Types
    o Type I – Strong

    • §
    • Bone, skin, tendon

    o Type II – Slippery

    • §
    • Cartilage, vitreous body

    o Type III – Bloody

    • §
    • Reticulin, blood vessels, uterus

    o Type IV – BM

    • §
    • Basement Membrane
  43. 6 steps of collagen synthesis
    o Synthesis – Preprocollagen

    o HydroxylationProline + Lysine + Vitamin C

    o Glycosylation – Procollagen

    o Exocytosis

    o Proteolytic Process – Tropocollagen

    o Cross-linking – Collagen Fibrils
  44. Type IV collagen defect
    Kidney disease, deafness, X-linked recessive
    Alport Syndrome
  45. Type III collagen defect
    Extensible skin, hypermobile digits, easy bruising, berry aneurysm
    • Ehlers-Danlos
    • Extend-a-Digit!!
  46. Type I collagen defect
    Blue sclera, hearing loss, dental imperfections, brittle bones
    Osteogenesis Imperfecta
  47. Fibrillin defect - long fingers, aortic dissection
    Marfan's Syndrome
  48. Elastase breaks down elastin which is normally inhibited by this enzyme, resulting in emphysema and cirrhosis
    a1-antitrypsin deficiency
  49. Where are stem cells found
    bone, liver, brain, skin, intestinal crypts, skeletal muscle and cornea
  50. Oct3 and Oct4 are what?
    transcription factors for pluripotent stem cells
  51. residual granule from free radical induced lipid oxidation
    lipofuscin
  52. enzyme mitigating aging effects by maintaining cellular chromosomal length
    telomerase
  53. family of proteins induced by calorie restriction
    Sirtuins

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