Chem 1B

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Mattyj1388
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154172
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Chem 1B
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2012-07-06 17:35:05
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Chem 1B COD final review
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  1. Cellulose
    • Has extensive hydrogen bonding between molecules that water cannot get between them and it is insoluble. It is the structural material of plants. Vegitable starch is about 25% amylose and 75% amylopectin.
    • Monomer: Beta - Glucose
    • Main Bond: Beta (1,4)
    • Branching: none
    • Extent: N/A
    • Shape: Linear
    • Size: 1,000
    • H2O Soluable: No
    • Digestable: No
  2. Amylose
    • Monomer: Alpha- Glucose
    • Main Bond: Alpha (1,4)
    • Branching: none
    • Extent: N/A
    • Shape: Spiral
    • Size: 1,000
    • H2O Soluable: Yes
    • Digestable: Yes
  3. Amylopectin
    • Monomer: Alpha- Glucose
    • Main Bond: Alpha (1,4)
    • Branching: Alpha (1,2)
    • Extent: Some
    • Shape: Globular
    • Size: 100,000
    • H2O Soluable: Colloid
    • Digestable: Yes
  4. Glycogen
    • Is how mammals store carbohydrate in the liver and in the muscles.
    • Monomer: Alpha- Glucose
    • Main Bond: Alpha (1,4)
    • Branching: Alpha (1,2)
    • Extent: Many
    • Shape: Globular
    • Size: 1,000,000
    • H2O Soluable: No
    • Digestable: Yes
  5. Lipids
    These are the molecules obtained from living cells that are insoluble in water, but soluble in nonpolar substances.
  6. Fats and oils
    • These are esters of the FA's with glycerol. They can have different FA's joined to each of the C atoms in glycerol, sometimes just one as in tristearin. The formal name of these molecules is Triacylglycerol.
    • If the FAs are predominantly saturated, they are fats.
    • If the FAs are predominantly unsaturated, they are oils.
    • The melting points reflect those of the FAs that constitute the molecule, hence fats are solid and oils are liquids.
  7. Primary Protein Structure
    • The sequence of AAs in the chain(s), linkage is the peptide bond. All proteins have primary structure. Chains are joined by disulfide bridges between two cysteines to form cystine:
    • 2H2N-CH(COOH)-CH2-S-H
    • H2N-CH(COOH)-CH2-S-S-CH2-CH(COOH)-NH2
  8. Secondary Protein Structure
    • All held together by hydrogen bonding between NH and CO groups of AA strands.
    • Alpha-Helix-coil of AAs with 3.6 AAs per turn, found in Alpha-keratin (e.g. hair, nails, wool) and portions of globular proteins.
    • Beta pleated sheets-folded, parallel chains. Found in fibrioin (silk).
    • Triple Helix-three stranded wound around each other (e.g. tropocollagen).
  9. Tertiary Protein Structure
    • Complex folding of chains with some regions of alpha-helix, sections held together by different types of bonding:
    • Hydrophilic interactions: between polar groups and water.
    • Hydrogen bonds: between various polar side chains.
    • Hydrophobic interactions: between nonpolar side chains, mainly on the inside of molecules.
    • Salt linkages: between carboxylate and amine groups.
    • Disulfide bonds: between different parts of the same chain.
  10. Quaternary Protein Structure
    Made up of two, four or more subunits. No specific bonding between subunits. Examples are hemoglobin (carries oxygen in the blood) and collagen, made up from tropocollagen.
  11. Common Fatty Acids
    • Common Fatty Acids:
    • Saturated
    • Name #of "C" M.P.(oC) Ex:
    • L Lauric 12- 44 Cocanut oil
    • M Myristic 14 -58 Butter Fat
    • P Palmitic 16- 63 Most fats & oil
    • S Stearic 18- 70 Most fats & oil
    • Unsaturated (1 or more double bonds)
    • Name #of "C" M.P.(oC) Ex:
    • O Oleic 18- 4 Olive Oil
    • L Linoleic 18 -5 Vegetable oil
    • L Linolenic 18 -11 Soybean&Cornola
    • A Arachidonic 20 -50 Lard
  12. Triacylglycerol
    • Triacylglycerol (Triglyceride): A triester of glycerol with three Fatty Acids (FA).
    • Are carboxylic acid triesters of glycerol, a three-Carbon trialcohol. Triacylglycerols are found as the fats stored in our bodies and in most dietary fats and oils.
    • [Major source of Biochemical energy]
  13. Saturated Fatty Acid
    Saturated Fatty Acid: A long chain carboxylic acid containing only Carbon-Carbon single bonds (C-C).
  14. Fatty Acid
    Fatty Acid (FA): A long-chain carboxylic acid; those in animal fats and vegetable oils often have 12-22 Carbon Atoms.
  15. Oil
    Oil: A mixture of triaclglycerols that is liquid because it contains a high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids.
  16. Composition of some common Fats and Oils
  17. Esterification
    • The formation of an Ester from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol, with the elimination of a molecule of water in the presence of an acid catalyst.
    • ie: carb acid+alcohol-> Ester + H2O
    • ie: 2 reactants -> 2 products
  18. Carbonal Group
    • O
    • ||
    • C
  19. Hydroxyl Group
    -O-H
  20. Carboxyl Group
    • O
    • ||
    • C-O-H
  21. Classifications of organic Compounds (part 5)
    Contain C, H and N
  22. Amines: 1 or more C groups, replace H in ammonia (amines can be primary, secoundary, and tritiary.)
  23. Amides: hydroxyl is replaced by Nitrogen
  24. Classification of Organic compounds (part 3)
    Contain C,H and a double bond to O;

    • Aldehydes: C bonds to at least 1 H;
    • .........O
    • ..........||
    • ie: H-C-H

    • Ketone: C bonds to 2 C atoms;
    • ........O
    • .........||
    • H3C-C-CH3
  25. Classification of Organic Compounds (part 4)
    Contain C,H, carboxyl & carboxyl + hydroxyl

    • Carbonic Acid:O bonded to H
    • Ester: O bonded to C not H
    • ie; ...O
    • .........||
    • CH3-C-O-CH3
  26. Ether
    • R - O - R
    • Note: R stands for any length of C chain.
  27. Chiral Carbon
    • Mirror imiges but can not be super imposed
    • ...Cl
    • .....|
    • H-C-F
    • .....|
    • ...Br
    • (4 different functional groups)
  28. Boiling points for functional groups
    • Lowest => highest
    • Alkane
    • Ether
    • Aldehyde
    • Ketone
    • Alcohol
    • Carboxylic Acid (highest)
  29. Thiol
    • End in Thiol
    • -SH
  30. ....H H
    • .....| ..|
    • H-C-C-S-H
    • .....|.. |
    • ....H H
  31. Aldehyde
    • Ending "al"
    • O
    • .||
    • C-H
  32. Ketone
    • Ending "one"
    • ....O
    • ....||
    • R-C-R
  33. Carboxylic Acid
    • ....O
    • .....||
    • R-C-O-H
    • Functional group: alcohol (has an OH, not O2H)
    • ending: " "-oic acid
  34. Ester
    • O
    • ||
    • R-C-O-R
    • Carboxylic acid + alcohol -> ester + water
    • ie:
    • ........O ..........................................................O
    • .........|| ..........................................................|||
    • CH3-C-O-H+ H-O-CH3--> H2O + CH3-C-O-CH3 (water+methyl ethanoate)
    • ie: perfume, flowers, fruit
  35. Amine
    NH2

    • Alkaloids are bad for you; nicotine, Caffeine, Morphene. Has "N"
    • Basic (likes to take H to become positive Ion)
  36. Amide
    • O
    • .||
    • C-N
    • Are barbituates, low doses= pain killers, high doses = sleep inducers, Are Habit Forming

    Also double bond to "O"
  37. Dehydration of an alcohol
    H+ Alcohol------->Alkene + H2O (Heat)
  38. Carboxyl group
    A carbon-oxygen double bond.
  39. Amine classification
    • 1 degree: CH3-NH2
    • 2 degree: CH3-NH-CH3
    • 3 degree: CH3-N-CH3
    • .........................|
    • ........................CH3
  40. Primary Alcohol oxidized
    • .........OH .......O ..........O
    • ..........|............ ||........... ||
    • CH3-CH ==> C-H => C-O-H
    • Aldehyde carb acid

    [aldehyde] then [carboxylic acid]
  41. Secoundary Alcohol oxidized
    • .........OH .........................................O
    • ..........|..............................................|||
    • CH3-CH-CH3 => ketone or CH3 - C - CH3
  42. ∆H
    ∆H = ∆E + ∆ngasRt
  43. Enthalpy
    • Enthalpy = H = E + PV
    • ∆H = ∆E + ∆ngasRt
  44. w
    w = -P∆V
  45. ∆G
    • ∆G = -RT ln Kp
    • ∆G = -RT ln K
    • ∆G = ∆G + RT ln Q
  46. G
    G = H – TS
  47. ∆G
    ∆G = ∆H - T∆S
  48. ∆G
    ∆G = Gfinal - Ginitial
  49. Exothermic reaction
    • Exothermic reaction =
    • ∆H = [ - ] 
    • ∆S = [ + ] 
    • ∆G = ∆H - T∆S = [ - ] – [ T (+) ] = [ - ] = Spontaneous
  50. G
    G = Free Energy
  51. Endothermic reaction
    • Endothermic reaction =
    • ∆H = [ + ] 
    • ∆S = [ - ] 
    • ∆G = ∆H - T∆S = [ + ] – [ T (-) ] = [ + ] = Non-Spontaneous
  52. Pressure and Temperature are held constant
    ∆V = ∆n (RT / P)
  53. ∆E
    ∆E = q + w where ∆E is a state f(x). q and w are not a state f(x)
  54. Enthalpy values
    ∆E = [ - ]
    ∆E = [ + ]
    • Entropy values 
    • ∆E = [ - ] = Exothermic  
    • ∆E = [ + ] = Endothermic
  55. Estimating M.P. & B.P.
    • ∆H = T∆S   
    • ∆S = ∆H / T  
    • T = ∆H / ∆S
  56. Spontaneous Change
    Spontaneous Change = A change that occurs by itself.
  57. R
    R = Energy constant 8.314 J / mol K
  58. Q
    Q = ion product = [Ag+] [Cl-] = Q
  59. Ksp < Q
    Ksp = Q
    Ksp > Q
    • Ksp < Q = Participate is formed (super saturated)
    • Ksp = Q = Saturated solution
    • Ksp > Q = Unsaturated solution
  60. Kinst
    Kinst = [(Cu2+)(NH3)4] / [(Cu(NH3)42+)] = 1 / Kform
  61. Kform
    Kform = When the chemical equation for the equilibrium is written so that the complex ion is the product, the equilibrium constant for the reaction is called the formation constant, or Kform. Ie: [(Cu(NH3)42+)] /  [(Cu2+)(NH3)4] = Kform
  62. Accuracy of Ksp
    • Ksp << (really small)
    • Ksp >> (really big)
    • # mol to saturate solution Ksp << for insoluble salts because then is a very tiny amount that is.
    • Assuming the dissolved parts are 100% disassociated.
  63. Factors that affect ∆S
    • Factors that affect ∆S are:
    • Volume
    • Temperature
    • Physical State
  64. q = ( + ) 
    q = ( - ) 
    w = ( + )  
    w = ( - )
    • q = ( + )  heat is absorbed by the system 
    • q = ( - )  heat is released by the system 
    • w = ( + )  work is done on the system
    • w = ( - )  work is done by the system.
  65. 3rd law of thermodynamics
    • At absolute zero, the entropy of a perfectly ordered pure crystalline substance is 0.
    • S = 0 @ T = 0K  
    • STP = 298K (25oc), 1 atm
  66. 1 atm
    • 1 atm =101,325pa
    • 101.325kpa Nm or Jw  
    • 760 torr
    • 760 mmHg
    • 14.696 psi (lb/in2)
    • 29.921 in Hg
    • 1.013 bar
  67. 1st law of thermodynamics
    • Internal energy may be transferred as heat or work but it cannot be created or destroyed.
    • Hess’s Law
    • ∆E = q + w
  68. 2nd law of thermodynamics
    • Whenever a spontaneous event takes place in our universe, the total entropy of the universe increases (∆Stotal > 0)
    • 1. ∆ST = ∆Ssystem + ∆Ssurrounding
    • 2. ∆Ssurrounding = qsurrounding / Temp 
    • 3. qsurrounding = -qsystem
    • 4. ∆Ssurrounding = (-∆Hsystem) / Temp 
    • 5. ∆Stotal = ∆Ssystem – (∆Hsystem) / Temp 
    • 6. ∆Stotal = (T∆Ssystem - ∆Hsystem) / T
    • 7. T∆Stotal = T∆Ssystem - ∆Hsystem
    • 8. ∆Hsystem - T∆Ssystem < 0
  69. Spontaneous
    • ∆H ∆S  Low temp             high Temp
    • ( - )(+)spontaneous           spontaneous
    • ( + )( - )nonspontaneous   nonspontaneous
    • ( - )( - )spontaneous          nonspontaneous
    • ( + )( + )nonspontaneous  spontaneous

    When ∆H & ∆S are the same sign, spontaneity is determined by T.
  70. Entropy
    • T↑ E↑
    • V↑ E↑ w / Gases 
    • Solid ->E↑-> Liquid ->E↑-> Gas-> E↑
    • ↑# of particles ↑E
    • The thermodynamic quantity associated with the probability of a state is Entropy, S. Entropy is a state f(x)  that is a measure of the number of energetically equivalent ways, microstates, W. Became statistical probability is so important in determining the outcome of chemical and physical events, thermodynamics defines a state f(x), called entropy “S”  that is related to the possible number of equivalent ways energy can be distributed in a system.

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