rocks rivers glaciers

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rocks rivers glaciers
2010-04-20 22:32:42

quiz number 4
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  1. Stream Order
    Smallest stream with no tributaries equals the FIRST ORder
  2. Second Order
    When two first order streams merge to a third order
  3. when a higher order mergers with a lower one what remains?
    the higher order
  4. mississppi river highest order
  5. sediment load
    the amount of sediment transported by a river
  6. bed load
    coarse/sediment that moves along the river bed by rollling, sliding or saltationo
  7. suspended load
    fine grained material held in the water by turbulence
  8. bed load and suspended load depend on
    energy in water (velocity)
  9. if velocity increases in a river?
  10. If velocity decreases in a river
  11. discharge
    amount of water flowing down a river
  12. sinuosity
    curvyness of a river
  13. braided streams
    • Multiple channeis that split and recombine
    • steeper gradient
    • higher velocity
    • higher sediment
    • lower discharge
  14. meandering stream
    • single channel that winds back and forth over flat area called a FLOOD PLAIN
    • flatter gradient
    • lower velocity
    • lower sediment load
    • higher discharge
  15. landscape evolution (matuerity)
    • young stream = immature landscape
    • steep V- shaped valley
    • stepper gradient and higher velocity
    • low sinuosity (straighter)
  16. older stream (mature landscape)
    • wide flood plain
    • flatter gradient and lower velocity
    • higher sinoucity
  17. rejuvenated stream
    • inside meanders
    • meandering shape but steep valley and steep gradient
    • due to rapid uplift
  18. anticedant Stream
    river was there befor the mountains uplifted
  19. drainage pattern
    reveal the nature and structure of the rocks underneath it
  20. dendritic pattern
    • tributaries join the main stream at an acute angle (forming V or Y) pointing down stream.
    • pattern resembles branches of a tree or nerve dendrites
    • most common type of pattern
  21. Radical Pattern
    streams diverge outward like spokes of a wheel, forms on high conical mountains such as composite volcanoes and domes
  22. rectangular pattern
    tributaries have frequent 90 bends and tend to join other streams at right angles develops on regularly fractured rock
  23. trellis pattern
    • consists of parallel main streams with short tributaries meeting them at right angles
    • form in a region where tiltied layers of resistant rock such as sandstone alternate with nonresistant rock like shale
  24. when a river meets the ocean or a lake and the velocity slows down and the sediment will be deposited into a?
  25. alluvial fan
    dry delta from an desert stream
  26. main stream project
    • 2 billion
    • widen and deepen river channel
    • raised prodo dam by 40 ft
    • built new dam called seven oaks dam
  27. porosity =
    volume of open pore space/ total volume of rock
  28. permiability
    • rate that water can flow through a rock
    • depends on the amount of CONNECTED pore space
  29. aquifer
    rock with high porosity and permiability
  30. aquitard
    rock with low porosity and permiability
  31. aquiclude
    rock with no/very low porosity and permiability
  32. open or unconfined aquifer
    dose not have an aquiclude over it
  33. closed or confined aquifer
    has an aquicude over it
  34. flowing artesian well
    water rises out of the aquifier and flows to the surface without being pumped
  35. non flowing artesian well
    water rises out of aquifier but not to the surface
  36. glaciers
    when ever the accumulation of snow greater then the melting
  37. Alpine glaciers or valley glaciers
    confined within a valley in a mountain range
  38. landscape carved by rivers
    • v shaped valley
    • gentle rounded topography
    • tributeries can cut down to same level as main stream
  39. landspace carved by glaciers
    • u shaped valley with steeper walls and wider valley floor
    • sharp angular topography
    • main glaciers can cut down much deeper then tributaries leaves HANGING VALLEY behind
  40. arete
    sharp ridge between glaciers
  41. horn
    • sharp glarized mountain peak
    • ex)matahorn
  42. cirque
    a bowl shaped depression at the head of the glacier
  43. tarn
    • lake within a cirque
    • (rock basin lake)
  44. till
    • immature glacial sediment
    • very angular
    • unsorted (by size)
  45. glacial erratics
    large boulders randomly left by glaciers
  46. moraine
    an accumulmation of till
  47. glacier retreats
    mean its not moving as fast as it use to not melting as quickly
  48. estuary
    valley flooded by rising sea level
  49. fjord
    glacial (U shaped ) estuary
  50. contintatal glaciers of ice sheets
    cover large areas, flows away from an area of high snowfall, can be more then 3 miles thick

    • 3 in the world today
    • green land
    • east antartic
    • west antartic
  51. drumlins
    tear drop shaped hills made of tills
  52. esker
    ridge made sediment deposted by sterein floring within or on top of glacier
  53. kenle
    • depression left when sediment was depesived a stranded block of ice
    • usually forms a pond or lake
  54. striarions
    grooves cut into rocks that tell us the directions the glacier was moving