Final Exam

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  1. Testes
    Produces testosterones, sperm.

    Sperm survives 2-6 days, egg survives 12-24 hours.
  2. Epididymis
    Where the sperm starts to develop their flagella.

    Semen: 95% seminal fluid, 5% sperm cells > 200 million sperm release but majority gets killed by the FRS since its acidic PH4 > 200 individual sperm remain to fertilize egg.
  3. Vas deferens
    Tube that carry sperm out of the male reproductive system.
  4. Seminal Vesicle
    Producing fluid with fructose and prostaglandins (hormones).
  5. Prostate gland
    Causes contractions during intercourse and help the sperm move up.

    Alkaline Fluid: Helps breakdown foods and helps neutralize Female Reproductive System (FRS) for the sperm to go through.
  6. Urethra
    Carries out semen and urine.

    Urine tube.
  7. Penis
    Helps transfer out fluid.
  8. Scrotum
    Keeps testes outside.

    Lower temperature.

    Sperm survives longer.
  9. Bladder
    Stores Urine.
  10. Ovary
    Stores all female egg.
  11. Follicle
    Small cells that surround and nourish the egg like a shield for the egg.

    Only have it when the female ovulates or on their period.
  12. Oocytes
  13. Corpus luteum
    Secretes progesterone (for pregnancy).

    Follicle without the egg. You only get it after ovulation.
  14. Fimbriae
    Catches the egg and makes sure the egg goes to the fallopian tube.
  15. Fallopian Tube
    During ovulation the egg waits to be fertilize.
  16. Endometrium
    Where the baby implants, the tissue that rpoves noruishment for the baby.
  17. Cervix
    Tips of Uterus.

    Point of dilation.
  18. What is a vasectomy? How does this procedure prevent pregnancy?
    Male sterilization

    Downfall is the tube can reconnect.
  19. What is a tubal ligation? How does this procedure prevent pregnancy?
    A female sterilization. It's when the fallopian tubes are cut and tied together. It prevent the sperm from reaching the egg.
  20. What is hysterectomy?
    The uterus is taken out and cannot be pregnant.
  21. What structure secretes estrogen and progesterone?
  22. What hormone does the corpus luteum secrete?
  23. What event is triggered when the estrogen increases? Does estrogen affect events in the ovaries or the uterus?
    Ovulation, and estrogen affect events in the ovaries.
  24. What event is stimulated when the progesterone increases? Does progesterone affect events in the ovaries or the uterus?
    It thickens the endometrium in the uterus.
  25. What event is triggered when both estrogen and progesterone levels drop?
    Menstruation and degenerating corpus luteum.
  26. How does birth control pills work to prevent unplanned pregnancies?
    Birth control pills keep the levels of estrogen and progesterone at the same level.
  27. What is Plan B (morning after pill)? What ways does it work to prevent unplanned pregnancies? Guidlines for taking Plan B to ensure that it is most effective?
    Single dose with high levels of progesterone and estrogen.

    Blocks ovulation, fertilization, and implantation.
  28. What occurs during ovulation?
    Ovaries are released.
  29. Fertilization
    Sperm and egg unites.
  30. Zygote
    Fertilized egg
  31. Polyspermy
    When an egg is fertilized by more than one sperm.
  32. Fast-Block mechanisms against polyspermy
    An electric barrier (Na+) is activated 10 seconds after fertilization.
  33. Slow-Block mechanisms against polyspermy
    A physical water barrier is activated 1 minute after fertilization.
  34. Trace the pathway of sperm from the testes to the Fallopian tube where fertilization occurs
    Testes (Sperm is made) > enters the Epididymis (flagella are made) > goes thru the Vans deferens > seminal vesicle (where they get there energy from fructose) > prostate gland helps them move out (5% semen, 95 % seminal fluid) > goes thru the urethra > ejaculation > enters vagina > goes thru cervix > goes thru Uterus > enters fallopian tube to meet with the egg to fertilize.
  35. Trace the pathway of ovulation for the egg
    The egg is being developed in the follicle and when there are high levels of estrogen, the egg is released form the follicle and that is when ovulation occurs.
  36. What is the purpose of cleavage after fertilization occurs>
    Tons of cell division.
  37. Why does the embryo release HCG after successful implantation?
    HCG feeds the corpus luteum so it doesn't breakdown. Corupus luteum makes progesterone, which maintains endometrium.
  38. Chorion
    Outer membrane.
  39. Placenta
    Connects embryo to endometrium.
  40. Amnion
    Inner membrane, produces amnionic fluid.
  41. Umbilical Cord
    Attaches embryo to placenta, feeds baby and give it oxygen.
  42. During gastrulation, which 3 main tissue layers are formed?
    Ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm
  43. What tissue does the ectoderm create?
  44. What tissue does the mesoderm create?
    All muscles: cardiac, skeleton, smooth muscles, and etcs.


  45. What tissue does the endoderm create?
    Inner lining of the gut.
  46. How do limb buds separate into individuals fingers and toes? When does this process occur in the embryo?
    During week 7 and it’s separate by apoptosis.
  47. Starting at week 6, the embryo starts to develop reproductive organs specific to its sex. What are the two ducts that all embryos possess prior to week 6? Which one develops into the Fallopian tubes in females? Which one develops into the vas deferens in males?
    Wolffian duct develops in the vas deferens in males.

    Mullerian duct develops into the fallopian tubes in females.
  48. Describe the role of the SRY gene in the development of male reproductive organs. What happens when this gene is absent (as true in females) or when this gene fails to turn on at week 6?
    SRY gene destroys the mullerian duct so the outcome would be a male.
  49. Starting at week 6, the embryo’s skeleton begins to ossify to create a skeleton made up of bone tissue. A bony skeleton is needed to protect vital organs like the brain, heart, lungs, etc. Explain the process of Intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification. Why is it important that expecting mothers increase calcium intake throughout pregnancy? What happens when an expecting mother fails to ingest additional calcium during pregnancy (i.e., what does she increase her risk of as she ages)?
    Ossification: Bone tissues form

    Skull + Ribs: Starting tissue: collagen > intramembranous ossification > Bone

    Arms + leg: Starting tissue: cartilage > endochondral ossification > Bone

    Mothers need to have additional calcium or else baby's bone will be weak and have osteoporosis.
  50. What is an ectopic pregnancy?
    An abnormal pregnancy that occurs outside the womb (uterus). The baby (fetus) cannot survive and often does not develop at all in this type of pregnancy.
  51. 15 embryonic events: Week 1
    Ovulation, Fertilization and zygote formation, mechanisms against polyspermy, cleavage.
  52. 15 embryonic events: Week 2 & 3
    Primitive streak formation, devleopment of embryonic and extra-embryonic structures (placent, chorion, amnion, umbilical cord), and gastrulation.
  53. 15 embryonic events: Week 4
    Organogenesis, heart starts beating & circulating blood, limb buds appear.
  54. 15 embryonic events: Week 5 & 6
    SRY gene activation and ossifcation of skeleton begins.
  55. 15 embryonic events: Week 7 & 8
    Apoptosis of limb buds and neurons generate action potentials (electric signals).
  56. What causes gall stones to form?
    High level of cholesterol.
  57. What are some physical symptoms of gall stone formation?
    Pain in upper right abdominal.
  58. How is gall stone treated?
    1. Pills to breakdown gall stone.

    2. Ultrasound to blast or breakdwon gall stone.

    3. Remove entire gall bladder (surgery).
  59. What are the symptoms of heart burn?
    Burning sensation in chest, lining in esophagus goes away (wall of esophagus).
  60. What are some triggers of heart burn?
    Spicy food, chocolate, lemon/lime, citric food.
  61. What is an ulcer?
    When the mucus layer is gone and acid kills the SCCs.
  62. What are symptoms of an ulcer?
    Abdominal pain, internal bleeding, blood in stomach.
  63. What are the causes of ulcers?
    Bacteria inside gut (Hyplori, which eats the mucus layer).

    Taking too much NSAIDs (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs) : Aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), naproxen (Alleve).

    Long term use will destroy mucus layer.
  64. How is ulcer treated?
    Antibiotics and eat before taking NSAIDs.
  65. What do salivary glands produce?
    Saliva, water + salivary amylase
  66. What is the function of salivary amylase?
    Breakdown food, starchy rich food.
  67. Pharynx's role in food processing: What is the epiglottis and how does it help with food processing enough though it is part of the respiratory system?
    Food transporter, mouth to esophagus
  68. Esophagus: What is peristalsis?
    Food transporter, carry food from throat to stomach (smooth muscle contract)
  69. What is the role of HCl (hydrochloric acid) produced by the stomach?
    Pulverize and breakdown and liquefy them.

    Kill germs.
  70. What is the role of the enzyme pepsin?
    Digest protein
  71. What is acid chyme?
    Results of chemical digestion in stomach
  72. What is the main function of villi and microvilli within the small intestine?
    Maximum absorption
  73. What is the function of resident microbes living in the
    Makes Vitamin K (clotting), Vitamin B
  74. Role of rectum
    store solid waste
  75. role of anus
    gets rid of solid waste
  76. role of appendix
    traps bacteria in the gut
  77. role of liver
    makes and breaks cholesterol, produces bile, which is needed for emulsification, which breaks down fat.
  78. role of gall bladder
    stores bile and helps produce fat quicker.
  79. What do pancrease produce?
    sodium bicarbonate, trypsin & chymotrypsin, pancreatic amylase, pancreatic lipase, and nuclease
  80. Sodium bicarbonate
    breaks down major neutralizer, makes thing less acidic.
  81. Trypsin & chymotrypsin
    break down protein digestion
  82. pancreatic amylase
    breaks down carbo-hydrates, sugary food, starches
  83. pancreatic lipase
    breaks down fat for you
  84. nuclease
    breaks down DNA & RNA
  85. What animal model did Robert Sapolsky use for his study on stress and what was his reasoning?
    • Baboons, because they are stress by each other. They
    • are stress by social and logical tumble.
  86. What two chemicals can be measured in the blood to determine stress levels?
    adrenalin hormone

  87. How does the stress response serve the body in a beneficial & positive way?
    If we can control stress we enjoy it.

    if we have the right type of stress, called stimulation like roller coaster rides.
  88. What is the link Sapolsky found between stress and social rank or hierarchy in his animal study?
    The dominant baboons have less stress than the submissive baboons.

    The bigger babbons always torture the smaller baboons, which give the smaller baboons to have more stress.
  89. What did the White Hall study on human subjects reveal about the relationship between stress & rank?
    Lower ranks have more stress than higher ranking people
  90. EXPLAIN the relationship between stress, the immune system, Helicobacter pylori bacterium, and ulcers.
    30 years ago, stress resulted to ulcers. Stress disrupts your body to repair itself.

    stress turns off your immune system and non-essential system.
  91. What does research on macaque monkeys reveal about how stress affects the coronary arteries? (Coronary arteries are blood vessels the directly supply the heart with blood & oxygen).
    A subordinate artery has Plaque located in the arteries due to having stress, which can lead to a heart attack.
  92. How does stress affect brain cognition and memory?
    Shrinks memory

    Chronic stress: change brain circuit which makes you lose capacity of memory

    Acute stress: makes you stupid
  93. What is dopamine? What does stress do to dopamine levels in the brain, and how does that affect your outlook on life?
    dopamine binds with receptors and signals pleasure.

    Dominant species-Lots of dopamine binding
  94. How does chronic stress affect the distribution/location of fat in the body? How does fat distribution affect your overall health?
    Fat brought on by stress is dangerous fat

    Subordinate monkey is most likely to have fat in their abdomen than dominant monkeys. Also applies to human hierarchy.
  95. A study was done during the Dutch winter hunger to learn about the effects of stress (famine) on fetal development. What type of diseases are children at a higher risk of developing if they were born in this era?
    Increase risk of cardio vascular disease, poorer health, more responsive to stress, and more hypercholesterolemia.
  96. How do high levels of circulating stress hormones in the mother’s blood stream affect the developing fetus?
    Stress hormones in the mother’s blood trigger a change in the nervous system in the fetus as it struggle with starvation.
  97. What is the relationship between stress and the length of your DNA? Use the terms telomeres & telomerase.
    The telomeres become shorter and lead to autism. When telomeres become shorter the DNA strands fall apart. Telomerase repairs the damage.
  98. What is gastric bypass surgery?
    Cuts and make your stomach smaller.

    Small intestine is connected to the new stomach.
  99. Pros of gastrci bypass surgery
    Weight loss

    Rapid weight loss than lap band
  100. Con of gastric bypass surgery
    Risk of infection.

    Not reversible, stuck with this stomach forever.
  101. Pros of lap band
    Reversible after surgery because it is just a band that is shrinking the stomach, not cutting it.
  102. Cons of Lap Band
    Takes longer t olose weight

    The band might cut into the stomach
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Final Exam
2012-05-17 02:39:27

Final Exam
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