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Which drugs belong to class IA antiarrhythmics?
1. Quinidine: is effective for both atrial and ventricular tachycardias
2. Procainamide: Used for ventricular and SVT.
Mechanism of action: Slow phase 0 of depolarization
Which antiarrhythmics mildly slow phase 0 while significantly shortening phase 3 repolarization, therefore causing a shortened action potential?
Class IB antiarrhythmics such as Lidocaine, Tocainide, and Mexiletine
--> This class of drugs are suitable lfor minimizing and controlling abnormal arrhythmias that are generated from abnormal automaticity, not just faster normal automaticity.
Which class of antiarrhythmic agents are effective in minimizing the chance of ectopic beats in the ventricle?
Class IC antiarrhythmics.
What kind of arrhythmias are Class II antiarrhythmics especially effective for?
Class II antiarrhythmics are beta-one agonists by suppressing phase 4. Therefore, they are particularly suited to treating sympathetically driven tachyarrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and AV nodal re-entrant tachycardia.
What is the indication for adenosine?
For supraventricular tachycardia conversion. It increases cAMP.
What is the mechanism of action of atropine?
Atropine blocks parasympathetic (vagal) activity therefore increasing heart rate.
What is the indication for Epinephrine?
For cardiac arrest. It stimulates the SNS.
What is the indication for isoproterenol?
It is used for refractory (unresponsive) bradycardia or third degree AV block
Which receptor does dobutamine activate?
Dobutamine is a pure beta-one agonist. It therefore causes significantly increased cardiac output and is the drug of choice for cardiogenic shock (MUST BE USED WITH DOPAMINE)
What is the ADR of levalbuterol?
Which drugs are long acting beta-2 agonists?
What ADRs are associated with Montelukast?
--> Montelukast contains phenylalanine
Which medication is used as the pediatric treatment for RDS (neonatal respiratory distress syndrome) in premature infants?
What is Dornase?
is used for cystic fibrosis.
What class of medications does Ipratropium belong?
Ipratropium is an anticholinergic.
What is Methacholine?
is used for diagnosis of bronchial airway bronchoconstriction in non-wheezing patietns with suspected asthma.
--> It may cause life-threatening bronchoconstriction.
- --> It is a strong cholinergic agents, activating the PNS.
- --> Avoid in pts with bradycardia, epilepsy, peptic ulcer disease, thyroid disease, or BPH.
What are GLP-1 analogues?
- GLP-1 analogues:
- 1. Exenatide
- --> It decreases appetite
- --> Increases pancreatic sensitivity such that increased levels of insulin are released.
- --> Decreases glucagon release
- --> Decreases gastric emptying
- --> Decreases hepatic fat content
Which medications belong to the group of DPP-4 Inhibitors?
Which medication inhibit the absorption of glucose from the gut and decrease glucose output from the liver, and also increase glucose uptake in fat and muscle?
Which medications inhibit alpha-glucosidase, an enzyme in the GI tract that normally degrades carbohydrates?
What is the mechanism of action of thiazolidinediones?
Thiazolidinediones such as Pioglitazone and Rosiglitazone
sensitize skeletal muscle and fat tissue to insulin by increasing the number of receptors and glucose transporters.
- --> Glitazones may cause edema, weight gain, new-onset heart failure, and may exacerbate pre-existing heart failure.
- --> They may also cause a resumption of ovulation in previously anovulatory premenopausal women.
- --> All glitazones are hepatotoxic.
Which medications belong to the group known as Meglitinides?
These medications cause increased insulin release by beta islet cells of pancreas similar to sulfonylreas.
What is Pramlintide?
- Pramlintide is an analog of amylin which is normally released by beta islet cells during insulin release.
- --> It works to promote satiety and decrease hepatic gluconeogenesis adn glycogenolysis.
What is the mechanism of action of Fibric acid Derivatives as treatment for hyperlipidemia?
Fibric Acid Derivatives increase amount of cholesterol secreted into the bile and activates lipoprotein lipase, thereboy mobilizing fats out of the bloodstream.
- 1. Clofibrate2. Fenofibrate3. Gemfibrozil
Which anti-muscarinic agent is used as treatment for peptic ulcers?
Methscopolamine is an anti-muscarinic agent that is specific to M1 receptors and so affects the stomach without affecting the heart, eye, and salivary glands.
What is the mechanism of action for Bismuth?
Bismuth works to inhibit pepsin, increasing mucus interaction with necrotic tissues (it coats and protects the crater).
--> It is also toxic to H. pylori as well as many other types of bacteria.
What is a common side effect associated with proton pump inhibitors?
Increased gastric carcinoids from a decreased HCl state in the stomach and increased gastrin state.
--> PPIs can also serve to indirectly increase gastric bacterial load.