Upper Extremity Anatomy

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
154351
Filename:
Upper Extremity Anatomy
Updated:
2012-05-17 01:29:32
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USMLE
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Description:
First Aid, upper extremity anatomy
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  1. inferior trunk (C8, T1) lesion
    • cervical rib compression of subclavian artery/inferior trunk
    • thoracic outlet syndrome
    • atrophy of thenar and hypothenar eminences
    • atropy of interosseous muscles
    • sensory deficits of medial side of forearm/hand
    • disappearance of radial pulse upon moving head toward ipsilateral side
  2. upper trunk (C5 & C6 roots) lesion
    • Erb-Duchenne palsy
    • "waiter's tip"
    • limb hangs by side - paralysis of abductors
    • medially rotated - paralysis of lateral rotators
    • forearm is pronated - loss of biceps
  3. median claw
    • distal median nerve lesion
    • loss of lateral lumbrical function
    • 2nd/3rd digits clawed (can't extend)
  4. ulnar claw
    • distal ulnar nerve lesion
    • loss of medial lumbrical function
    • 4th/5th digits are clawed (can't extend)
  5. ape hand
    • proximal median nerve lesion
    • loss of opponens pollicis muscle function
    • unopposable tumb (can't abduct thumb)
  6. klumpke's total claw
    • lesion of lower trunck (C8,T1)
    • loss of function of all lumbricals
    • clawing of all digits
  7. fracture of surgical neck of humerus
    axillary nerve
  8. dislocation of humerus
    axillary nerve
  9. intramuscluar injections
    can cause axillary nerve lesion (innervates deltoids)
  10. midshaft fracture of humerus
    radial nerve in spiral groove
  11. compressed in axilla
    incorrect use of a crutch
    radial nerve
  12. stretched by subluxation of radius
    radial nerve - deep branch
  13. supracondylar fracture of humerus
    median nerve compression
  14. pronator teres syndrome
    median nerve
  15. fracture of medial epicondyle of humerus
    • ulnar nerve
    • also lesioned by repeat minor trauma
  16. carpal tunnel syndrome
    median nerve
  17. dislocated lunate
    median nerve
  18. fracture of hook of hamate
    ulnar nerve
  19. nerve compression by pancoast tumor of lung
    • lower trunk of brachila plexus (C8, T1)
    • leads to Klumpke's palsy
  20. C7 root compression
    cervical disk lesion
  21. radial nerve lesion - motor deficit
    • "BEST extensors"
    • Brachioradials
    • Extensors of wrist/fingers
    • Supinators
    • Triceps
  22. wrist drop
    radial nerve lesion
  23. musculocutaneous nerve lesion
    difficulty flexing elbow
  24. winged scapula
    • long thoracic nerve lesion (C5-C7)
    • used for abduction above horizontal
    • mastectomy = winged scapula and lymphedema
  25. thenar eminence
    • opponens pollicis
    • abductor pollicis brevis
    • flexor pollicis brevis
    • "OAF - Oppose, abduct, flex"
  26. hypothenar eminence
    • opponens digiti minimi
    • abductor digiti minimi
    • flexor digiti minimi
    • "OAF - oppose, abduct, flex"
  27. "DAB"
    • Dorsal interosseous muscles
    • ABduct fingers
  28. palmar interosseous muscles
    • "PAD"
    • Palmars ADduct fingers
  29. lumbrical muscles
    • flex at MCP joint
    • extend at PIP, DIP joint
  30. unable to wipe bottom
    thoracodorsal nerve - latissimus dorsi muscle

    • humerous extension
    • adduction
    • medial rotation
  31. loss of forearm pronation
    median nerve lesion
  32. trouble initiating arm abduction
    • supraspinatus muscle
    • suprascapular nerve
  33. unable to abduct arm beyond 10 degrees
    • deltoid muscle
    • axillary nerve
  34. unable to raise arm above horizontal
    • serratus anterior muscle
    • long thoracic nerve

    • trapezius muscle
    • spinal accessory nerve
  35. carpal tunnel syndrome
    median nerve entrapment - flexor retinaculum

    • numbness/tingling over lateral digits, sometimes radiates up elbow
    • wasting of thenar eminence
  36. sensory to
    posterior arm
    dorsal hand/thumb
    radial nerve
  37. median nerve sensory deficit
    • dorsal/palmar of lateral 3.5 fingers
    • thenar eminence
  38. ulnar nerve sensory deficit
    • medial 1.5 fingers
    • hypothenar eminence
  39. musculocutaneous sensory deficit
    lateral forearm

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