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what do hormones do?
they do internal communication
whats the difference between an endocrine and exocrine gland?
- endocrine are secreted straight into the circulatory system
- exocrine are secreted into ducts
What do these have in common?....
pituitary, hypothalamus, thyroid, adrenal, pancreas, testes, ovaries, pineal, kidney, GI glands, heart, thymus
They all secrete hormones
Where are the adrenal glands located?
What are the two parts of the adrenal glands?
- Adrenal medulla
- Adrenal cortex
What hormone does the adrenal medulla release?
- epinephrine (adrenaline)
- norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
Can epinephrine be a neurotransmitter?
What does epinephrine do that norepinephrine doesn't?
it inhibit digestion
What does epinephrine/norepinephrine do?
- increase glycogen to glucose production
- raises blood glucose
- increases heartrate
- directs blood to muscles and brain
what hormone controls the fight or flight response?
What gland does epinephrine come from?
What kind of hormone does the adrenal cortex release?
steroid hormones (cortico steroids)
What triggers the adrenal cortex to release hormones?
ACTH (from pituitary)
What are the three divisions of steroids? G M C
- Cortical sex hormones
What hormones are in the glucocorticoid steroids?
regulates glucose levels
How does cortisol regulate glucose levels?
it raises blood glucose by promoting protein breakdown
What hormones are in the mineralocorticoids?
regulates Na and K in blood
How does aldosterone regulate Na and K?
- it causes active absorption of sodium in Nephron
- (increase in blood volume and pressure is the result)
What hormones are in the cortical sex hormones?
(small effect on men...but affect women if too much)
What's the one thing that decreases plasma glucose levels?
- (4 things will increase it)
What are the 4 things that increase plasma glucose levels?
- 1. glucagon
- 2. growth hormone
- 3. glucocorticoids
- 4. epinephrine
What is FLAT PiG?
the hormones of the anterior pituitary gland
name the FLAT PiG hormones
- FSH (follicle)
- LH (luteinizing)
- ACTH (adrenocorticotropic)
- TSH (thyroid)
- GH (growth)
Where's the pituitary gland? (anterior/posterior gland)
base of the brain
What hormones does the anterior pituitary gland secrete?
Which gland has "direct" vs. "tropic" hormones?
What do direct hormones do?
directly affect target organ
What do tropic hormones do?
they stimulate other glands to release hormones
What controls the pituitary gland?
the hypothalamus (hormones and factors)
What are the two direct hormones?
GH and Prolactin
What does growth hormone do?
- bone/muscle growth
- dwarfism/gigantism/acromegally (disproportional)
What does prolactin do?
milk production and secretion
What are the 5 tropic hormones?
What does ACTH do?
what regulates it?
- stimulates the adrenal cortex
- regulated by CRF (corticotropin releasing factor)
What does TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) do?
stimulates thyroid to release thyroxin!!!
What does LH (Luteinizing hormone) do? girls vs. guys
girls: stimulates ovulation, forms corpus luteum
guys: stimulates interstitial cells, testes to make testosterone
What does FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) do? girsl vs. guys
- girls: maturation of ovarian follicls (which secrete estrogen)
- guys: sperm, seminiferous tubules
What does MSH (melanocyte stimulating hormone) do?
- unknown in mammals
- frogs: darkening of the skin
What does the posterior pituitary do?
stores and releases "oxytocin" and "ADH"
What hormones does the posterior pituitary make?
none, it only stores hormones from the hypothalumus
What two hormones are stored in the posterior pituitary?
oxytocin and ADH (anti diuretic hormone)
What does oxytocin hormone influence?
- during childbirth, increases strength and frequency of contractions
- milk secretion
What does ADH stand for? and what does it do?
- anti diuretic hormone
- increases water absorption (increase blood volume)
- when osmolarity increases ADH is released
- when blood volume is down ADH is released