VS 4 triage

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Author:
lynnsy
ID:
154430
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VS 4 triage
Updated:
2012-05-18 03:37:25
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triage
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triage
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  1. Simpathetic stim by the iris
    Pupil dilation
  2. Simpathetic stim by the salivary glands
    Saliva Production reduced
  3. Simpathetic stim by the oral/nasal mucosa
    mucus prodution reduced
  4. Sympathetic stim by the heart
    increase HR and force
  5. Sympathetic stim by the lungs
    bronchial muscle relaxed
  6. Sympathetic stim by the stomach
    peristalsis reduced
  7. Sympathetic stim by the small intestines
    motility reduced
  8. Sympathetic stim by the large intestines
    motility reduced
  9. Sympathetic stim by the liver
    increased conversion of glycogen glucose
  10. Sympathetic stim by the Kidney
    decreased urine secretion
  11. Sympathetic stim by the adrenal medulla
    norepinephrine and epinephrine secreted
  12. Sympathetic stim by the bladder
    wall relaxed/sphincter closed
  13. Parasympathetic stim by the iris
    pupil constriction
  14. Parasympathetic stim by the salivar glands
    saliva prod. increased
  15. Parasympathetic stim by the oral/nasal mucosa
    mucus production increased
  16. Parasympathetic stim by the heart
    decreased HR and force
  17. Parasympathetic stim by the Lung
    bronchial muscle contracted
  18. Parasympathetic stim by the stomach
    gastric juice secreted; motility increased
  19. Parasympathetic stim by the Sm. Intestine
    digestion increased
  20. Parasympathetic stim by the Lg. intestine
    secretions and motility increased
  21. Parasympathetic stim by the kidney
    increased urine secretion
  22. Parasympathetic stim by the bladder
    wall contracted/sphincter relaxed
  23. Ataxia
    muscle incoordination
  24. paresis
    muscle weakness that may lead to paralysis
  25. opisthotonus
    spasm, head and neck are arched backward, poor prognosis
  26. schiff-Sherrington
    K-9 only sever spinal cord injury front legs extended & rigid hind legs paralyzed
  27. Proproception
    the sense of body placement foot knuckling delay in righting response indicates cerebellar injury
  28. Cheyne stokes breathing
    • cyclic hyperventilation
    • cycles to perods of apnea
    • cerebrum damage
  29. Apneustic
    long inspiration with pause
  30. Corneal relfex
    blink reflex; last reflex to go
  31. Palpebral Reflex
    touch medial cantus; sensory and motor nerves of the eyelids
  32. Pupillary light reflex
    afferent & efferent pathways; Only tests for functioning of autonomic control of pupil
  33. Menace reflex
    movent towards the eye
  34. Nystagmus
    involuntary movement of eyes
  35. Strabismus
    cross-eyed
  36. Somatic system
    voluntary portion -skeletal muscle
  37. Autonomic
    • Involuntary
    • -smooth muscle and glands
    • Sympathetic-fight or flight
    • Parasympathetic-Rest & digest
  38. 4 Parts of the Brain
    • Cerebrum
    • Diencephalon
    • Cerebellum
    • Brainstem
  39. Cerebrum
    higher order of behavior contols muscle movement
  40. Diencephalon
    • thalmus
    • hypothalmus
  41. Cerebellum
    regulates motor activity of the trunk, limbs, and head equilibrium
  42. Brainstem
    • midbrain
    • pons
    • medulla oblongata
  43. what does the brainstem reulate
    • HR
    • -RR
    • -blood vessel diameter
    • -swallowing
    • -vomitting
  44. Levels of Consciousness
    • 1 Counscious
    • 2 Hysterical
    • 3 depressed
    • 4 Stupor
    • 5 Coma
  45. Dorsal root of the spinal Cord
    sensory, senses pain or stimuli
  46. Ventral root of the spinal cord
    Motor fx
  47. vertebral formula
    C7,T13 L7 S3 ca 3-24
  48. Brachial plexus
    bundle of nerves that intervate the front limbs

    C5-C2
  49. Lumbosacral plexus
    intovates the hind limbs

    L4-S3
  50. Idiopathic Epilepsy Def.
    repeted seizures w/o any demonstraited cause, animal normal between seizures
  51. Epilepsy tx
    phenobarbital, Potassium Bromide
  52. breeds predisposed for epilepsy
    • goldens
    • germans
    • toy poodles
    • labs
  53. Status Epilepticus Def
    Continual seizure activity 5-10 mins in duration Always and emergency
  54. Status epilepticus c/s
    prolonged uninterupted seizure activity
  55. Stat. Epilep. tx
    • ~valium rectally (sodium pentobarbital)
    • ~establish an airway
    • ~Place IV in recurrent tarsal vein
    • ~cool bath if above 105
    • ~+/- diuretics/steroids
    • ~gen. anethesia if seizures dont stop
  56. Intervertebral disc dz type 1 heniation
    acute rupture of annulus fibrosis (young animals with short legs and long back)
  57. Intervertebral disc dz type 2 herniation
    • chronic issue occuring primarily in large breed dogs
    • -bouldging disk
  58. C/S of type 2 herniation
    pain, unilateral or Bilateral paralysis, decreased response during panniculus tst, altered deep pain, fecal and urinary incontinance
  59. tx of type 1 herniation
    • Medical
    • Confinement
    • Analgesia
    • Steroid admin
    • *Surgical*
    • laminectomy asap
  60. Type 2 herniation tx
    long term steroids and physical therapy
  61. Idopathic Vestibular Dz def
    neurologic equipment that helps to precieve one position in space
  62. Idiopathic Vestibular dz receptor
    roational exceleration, detects tumbling
  63. Idiopathic Vestibular dz linear exelerator
    detects up from down
  64. C/S of Idiopathic Vestibular dz
    • ataxia
    • headtilt (halmark)
    • motion sickness
    • circling
    • nystagmus
    • hard to control facial muscles
  65. Idiopathic Vestibular dz roll outs
    • otitus interna
    • thyamin dif
    • trauma
    • middle ear pollips
  66. DX Idiopathic Vestibular dz
    otoscopic exam
  67. tx Idiopathic Vestibular dz
    • tranquilizers
    • cage rest
    • maclazine-Dramamine
  68. Hypoxia causes
    • impaired pulmonary fx
    • hypoventilation
    • ineffective delievery w/in the body
    • increased tissue O2 demand
    • inadequate inpired conc. of O2
  69. halmark sign of dyspnea
    cyanosis (late stage)
  70. c/s of dsypnea
    • cyanosis
    • anxiety
    • tachypnea
    • panting
    • excessive effort (abdominal breathing)
    • extended head and neck
    • tachycardia
    • aggression and thrashing
  71. PaO2
    • partial pressure O2 concentration
    • pressure of arterial oxygen
    • measure from arterial blood
    • GTT
    • pt must be off O2
    • bst indicator of pulmonary fx
  72. PaO2 norm
    85-105mmhg
  73. Pulse Ox
    • amt of Hb saturated w. O2
    • norm 95% or greater
    • hypoxia 90% or below
    • HR and Pulse tare should be the same
  74. Factors that can affect Pulse ox reading
    • body temp
    • mvmnt
    • skin pigmentation
  75. goal of O2 delivery
    • create an O2 rich enviornment
    • 40% or greater
  76. C/s of O2 toxicity
    • fibrosis
    • pulmonary edema
    • atelectisis
    • hemorrhage
    • blindness
  77. short term O2
    • flow by
    • mask
    • nasal prongs
    • oxygen tent
    • oxyhood
    • nasal catherter
  78. long term O2
    • Intratracheal Cath
    • O2 Cage
  79. laryngeal paralysis (roar) causes
    • aquired
    • -lead toxicity
    • -2ndary to rabies
    • -trauma
    • Idiopathic
    • -middle to older large breed dogs
    • Hereditary
    • -neutered male dogs
  80. laryngeal paralysis C/S
    • inspiritory stridor
    • resp. Distress
    • exercise intolerance
    • Voice (bark) change
    • dyspnea
    • sinosis
  81. laryngeal paralysis Dx
    Laryngoscopy
  82. laryngeal paralysis tx
    arytenoidectomy (vocal folds)
  83. Tick paralysis cause
    • common dog tick
    • rocky mtn wood tick

    salivary neuro toxin by female tck intereferes with release of acetylcholine at neuromuscular junction
  84. Tick paralysis C/s
    • paralysis of hind limb that leads to flacid paralysis
    • presence of tick
  85. total body water
    • adult 60% of body weight
    • neonate 80%
  86. intracellular fluids
    40% of body weight
  87. extracellular fluids
    20% of BW

    • interstitual fluids
    • 15%

    intervascular 5%
  88. Sensible flood loss (can be measured)
    • urine
    • blood
    • vomit
    • diarrhea
  89. insensible fluid loss (cannot be measured)
    • perspiration
    • respiration
    • fecal loss
  90. five basic fluids
    • crystalloid
    • Colloids
    • hemoglobin based O2 carrying solutions
    • blood products
    • inravenous nutrition
  91. Crystalloid fluids
    h2o with sodium or glucose may contain electrolytes
  92. Replacement cystalloids
    • for rapid replacement of intravascular volume and electrolytes
    • ~ dehydratio
    • ~hemorrage
    • ~shock
  93. 0.9% NaCl
    • ringers solution
    • replacement crystalloid
    • lactaed or non lactaded

    do not use in neonates geriatrics or lver failure pts
  94. Normasol-R
    Plasmalyte-A
    replacement cystalloids
  95. mainenance crystalloids
    indicated in a pt w. norm physiologic losses but cannot intake fluid
  96. fluid maintenace rate
    30mls/lbs/hr
  97. maint. cryst. solutions
    • 0.45% NaCl+dextrose
    • LRS+dextrose
    • plasmalyte-56
  98. Hypertonic saline
    • Pulls fluid into vessels
    • indicated for pts who are
    • severly hypovolemic
    • severly dehydrated
    • usually in shock

    works quick but leaves the body fast follow with replace. crystalloids
  99. Ex's for use of hypertonic saline
    • GDV pts
    • Colon torsion pts
  100. hypertonic saline solution
    7.2% NaCl
  101. 5% dex in water
    used to infuse iv meds
  102. Colloids
    fluid w. a high molecular weight that do not readily leave the intravascular space

    expands IV vol. by drawing fluids in and holding it there
  103. idications for colloids
    • hypovolemia
    • sepsis
    • pancreantitis
    • gastroenteritis
    • burn pts
  104. Colloid solutions
    • plasma
    • hetastarch
    • dextrans
    • oxyglobin
  105. contraindications for colloids
    • coagulopathys
    • heart dz
    • pulmonary dz
  106. Oxyglobin
    syntetic crosslinked bovine HB
  107. indications for oxyglobin
    • IMHA
    • AIHA
    • hemorrage
    • rat poison
  108. advantages of oxyglobin
    • rapid o2 trans to tissues
    • universally compatable
    • last longer than rbc
  109. disadvans of oxyglobin
    • invalidates plasma evals
    • acts as a colloid
    • bad for heart and lung pts
  110. blood products
    used to replace whole blood
  111. rates of admin for blood products
    • 15-30mins at 0.11 ml/lb/min (watch for reaction)
    • then give entire unit w/in 4hrs
  112. Parenteral Nurtition
    • for pts where enteral nutri. not feasible
    • admin through peripheral or central vein

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