Loren bio 6.2
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Where is the hypothalamus?
brain....above the pituitary gland
What controls the hypothalamus?
neural signals make it turn on
What does the hypothalamus do?
- stimulates or inhibits the anterior pit.
- makes oxytocin/ADH for the post. pit.
What two things does the hypothalamus have for the ant. pit.
- ACTH-rf (releasing factor)
What does GnRH do?
stimulates the anterior pit. to give FSH and LH
What controls release of ant. pit.'s FSH and LH?
GnRH from hypo
What is ACTH-RF?
acth Releasing factor
What two hormones are made in the hypo then shipped to the post. pit?
oxytocin and ADH
Where's the thyroid?
on the trachea
What does the thyroid do?
produce/secretes thyroxin, calcitonin
What are the two thyroid hormones (not including calcitonin)
What do the thyroid hormones do?
stimulate growth and neuro development in children
What does hypothyroidism do? vs. Hyper
- hypo: undersecreted, cold, fatigue, weight gain]
- hyper: opposite
Where does calitonin come from?
What does calcitonin do?
it decreases [Ca+] by inhibiting release of Ca from bones
What two hormones does the pancreas give off? G I
Where are the islets of langerhorn, and what do they do?
- On the pancreas
- make and secrete Glucagon and Insulin
What does glucagon do?
- it increases blood glucose
- stimulates protein and fat degradation (glycogen to glucose)
What is glucagon antagonistic to?
what is insulin antagonistic to?
What does insulin do?
- lower blood glucose
- encourages muscle uptake of suger
Where's the parathyroid glands?
posterior surface of the thyroid
What do the parathyroid glands secrete?
PTH (parathyroid hormone)
What does the PTH do?
increases Ca+ concentration in blood (increase bone reabsorption)
What is PTH?
Where does PTH come from?
The parathyroid glands
What do kidney glands release?
Where does renin come from ?
What does renin do?
converts blood protein angiotensin to something else which stimulates adrenal cortex to release aldosterone
what stimulates the adrenal cortex to release aldosterone?
Renin from the kidneys
When is Renin released?
when blood volume is down.
What three hormones are released in the GI (gastrointestinal?)?
Where does gastrin come from?
wwhere does Secretin come from?
Where does cholecystokinin come from?
What does gastrin do?
stimulates HCL release after ingested food
What does secretin do?
stimulates basic release of alkaline bicarbonate (cause of acidic foods)
What does cholecystokinin do?
Stimulates gall bladder to release bile (for breakup of fatty foods)
Where is the pineal gland?
base of brain
What does the pineal gland release?
Where does melatonin come from?
What does melatonin do?
- regulates circadian rhythms (24 hour physiological stuff)
- dark light cycles
- antagonist of MSH
What are the two different mechanisms of Hormone action?
Peptide and Steroid
Match Peptide and Steroid with the appropriate mechanism.
- Peptide: Extracellular
- Steroid: Intracellular
What are peptide hormones? what do they do?
they are first messangers that trigger second messengers to do something (surface)
What are steroid hormones? what do they do?
- Intracellular receptors
- they enter cell, the hormone and receptor go and get the DNA directly.
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