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What is Anorexia, name some of the symptoms?
- Anorexia is a Loss of appetite
- Combined with weight loss
- May have psycholigical reasoning
- Could be an adverse reaction to medication
Why is Nausea subjective?
Nausea is a symptom but is not physical action, it is a patients feeling therefore making it subjective.
What is another name for vomiting?
- Vomiting is a protective action by the body via the oral cavitiy. It is the explosion of gastric juices in a forceful manor.
Where is the vomit centre located in the brain?
The vomit centre is located in the medulla (mid brain) it coordinates with the GI tract, cerebal cortex, vestibular apparatus and other organs
What does vestibular apparatus mean?
Where is the CTZ located? (Chemoreceptor Trigger Zone)
Floor of the 4th ventricle
Name the stimuli associated with vomiting?
- Pallor (pale face)
- Decrease in BP
- Contraction of the pyloric portion of the stomach
- Relaxation of the cardiac portion of the stomach
- Expulsion of contents by contration of the diaphragm and stomach wall.
What do Antiemetics do?
- A. Promote sleep
- B. Suppress nausea
- C. Reduce the acidic environment of the stomach
- D. All of the above
- E. None of the above
What is the MOA of Serotonin?
Blocks serotonin receptors in CNS and GIT feed into the CTZ. As it blocks the receptor this makes it an antagonist
What is the action if the H1 histamine receptor?
Blocks receptors in the pathway that connects the inner ear to the vomiting centre in CNS
Name 3 possible disorders that can cause GIT bleeding?
What maybe the reason for haematemesis?
Haematemesis is vomiting of blood this maybe due to a peptic ulceration or rupture to oesophageal varicosities
Manifestations of GI disorders?
- Faecal Blood Loss - Melena If bleeding above ileocecal valve; black tarry stools. If lower then bright red stools
- Occult bleeding - sml amts of blood can only be chemically detected
What is GORD? (Gastric oesophageal reflux disease)
This is a weakness or malfunction to the lower oesophageal sphinter will result in the feeling of heartburn.
Name 2 irritants to the Oesophagus when a disorder is present?
caffine & tobacco
Why is Asprin (NSAIDs) harmful to the gastric area?
Asprin inhibits the prostaglandin process therefore decreasing the gastric blood flow and possibly disrupting the protective mucosal barrier.
Name the defensive factors to Peptic Ulcer Disease?
- Blood flow
Why would 2-3 Antibotics be used to eradicate Helicobacter Pylori?
The reason for using 2-3 Antibotics is because treatment is not affective with only one and the risk of developing antibotic resistance is high.
Why do anti-secretory agents reduce gastric acidity?
By blocking the H2 receptors, antagonist
Describe the MOA of antacids?
Neutralise stomach acid, adherence to medication instructions due to the increase risk of PUD. Stomach is stimulated to produce more acid and pepsin at lower doses.
Diagnosing of IBS?
IBS needs to have reucrrent symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, anorexia, bloatedness and altered bowel function for a minimum of 3 months including abdominal pain relieved by defecation.
Why are 40% Colorectal Cancer tumours removed at stage C?
Stage C is when the cancer metastased in the lymph and as this particular type of cancer symptoms usually occur late in the disease.
Diverticular disease, what is it?
Diverticularlitus is where small pockets form on the colon wall and faeces and bacteria become trapped in these pockets and inflammation occurs. These may perferate and faeces may leak into the bloodstream.
Name the possible causes of appendicitis?
A fecalith; which is a hard piece of stool or the twisiting of the lumen are the possible causes of appendicitis.
Is Peritonitis from?
- A. Perferated appendix
- B. Diverticulum
- C. Peptic Ulcer
- D. Abdominal trauma
- E. All of the above
What is Zollinger-Ellison syndrome?
A gastrin secreting tumour of the pancreas
What is Nosocomial infection?
A bacteria spread during a hospital stay, it can be resistant to antibotics?
Name the 2 types of Diarrhoea, and explain the difference?
- Large volume - Not painful, watery, no blood or pus. Osmotically active particles remain in the stools and draw water into the colon.
- Small volume - Painful, straining of stools. May include blood or pus. Acute or chronic infections such as Ulcerative Colitis or Chron's disease
Name the common causes of constipation?
- Poor fibre intake
- Haemorrhoids - pain when defication therefore avoiding deficating = constipation
- Drugs - Opiates have a binding side effect
There are three types of laxatives? Name and provide a brief description?
- Surfactant - reduces surface tension, increases water in the stools = softer stools
- Osmotic - Indigestible, retaining fluid = softer stools
- Stimulant - Increase GI motility, increase fluid in intestine, increase in peristalsis = softer stools