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What are 3 Abnormal Curvatures of the Spine?
- Kyphosis - Excessive outward curvature
- Lordosis - Inward Curvature
- Scoliosis - Lateral Curvature
What are the three main causes for abnormal spine curvature?
- -Forwarded head position (Main Cause)
- -Using a computer
Causes of Back pain
Theres eight (8)
- -Forward head position
- -Sprain/strained ligavments, tendons, muscles
- -Degenerative Disk disease (anulus fibrosis)
- -Herniated Disk
- -Spinal Stenosis (Narrowing of nerve canals)
- - much worse when standing
- When a vertebrae slips forward on top of another
- -Emotional Stress
- -Vertebral Body Fractures
- -Osteoporosis (Bone Loss)
Deals with extension of the back to help with injury
What are the Five common injection sites for Back Pain?
Epidural, SNRB, Fascet Joint Block, Fascet Rhizotomy, and Sacroiliac Joint Block
What is Epidural?
- -Most common
- -Steriod injection
- -Success rate of 50% injection directly into the dura
- -The sac around the nerve roots
What is SNRB?
- Selective Nerve Root Black-Diagnostic procedure used to find the source of pain
What is Fascet Joint Block?
Needle injected directly into the fascet joint capsule
What is Facet Rhizotomy?
For severe pain, pain is heated, injected justt outside the fascet joint to block the pain
What is Sacroiliac Joint Block?
- -Sacroiliac Joint Block
- involves sacroiliac join (S1), connects sacrum with pelvis
- Needle injected directly into the join, contains steriod lido caine
Where does the Arm Flexor muscles originate?
Scapula is considered what kind of bone?
Front row takes place in which plane?
Cartwheel occurs in which plane?
Horizontal acceleration of a projectile
stays the same
vertical acceleration slows down,
Iliosoas flexor of the Hips
In a 2 joint muscle, the muscle is more efficient at one joint when the position of the other joint stretches the muscle slightly
Define Muscle Irritability
Ability of a muscle to respond to a stimulus (respond to stretch)
Analyzing a long jump biomechanically,
What is most important?
Instantaneous velocity at takeoff
Is weight always a force?
Most common symptom of osteoporosis
Lower back pain
Throwing a baseball occurs mainly in what plane?
What is Electromechanical delay?
Time needed for a muscle to develop tension after receiving a nerve impulse
What is the main purpose of the rotator cuff
Hold head of the humerus in glenoid fossa
ACL injuries occur more frequently in which sports?
Define Fascet Rhizotomy
Percutaneous radio frequency lysis of the innervation of a fascet
Define Paars interarticularis
Alongside a vertebrae
Class of cells in the CNS
What is Sinew?
Can mean tendinous tissue, Tendon
Define Nervi Nervorum
Nerves distributed to the sheaths of nerve trunks (nerve root)
Nerves that branch our
Breaking down of the portion of the spine
Operation on a groove opening or hole on a bone usually to open it
operation of stretching a nerve or nerve trunk
3 membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord
What is Idiopathic?
Of unknown origin or cause
What is Dysaesthesia
Unpleasant, abnormal sensation
(can be spontaneous or evoked)
What is Nociceptive?
What is Vasculitis?
Inflammation of a vessel
Define is Claudication?
Limping caused by impaired blood supply to the legs
Tearing out or evulsion of a nerve
Neurons at the synapse of a nerve that allow for neurotransmitters to be released
What is Endogenous
Develops or originates within the organism
What is Neoplasm?
Abnormal growth of tissue
What is Epinosis?
Imaginary feeling of illness followed by a real illness
What is Neuropathy?
General term meaning a distrubance in the PNS
What is the Cauda Equina?
Lower part of the spinal cord
What is Ectopic?
Out of place
What is Neurilemma?
Delicate outer sheath of a nerve fiber
What is Ligamentum Flavum?
Paired bands of yellow elastic tissue that connect adjoining vertebrae
How long is Subacute?
Between acute and chronic
-3 weeks - 3 months
What is Amyloidosis?
Glycoprotein deposited extracellarly in tissues' leads to a variety of diseases
What is Hyperplasia?
Abnormal multiplication or increase in cells
What is Cytokines?
Non-antibody proteins secreted by cells that has a specific effect on interactions between cells, on communications between cells or on the behavior or cells
What is Fascia?
Flat layers of tissue that seperate different layers of tissue
What is Articular fascet?
Small surface of bone that forms a joint with another bone
What is Parineurial?
Surrounding a nerve or nerve fiber
What is Spondylosisthesis?
One vertebrae sliding on top of another
What is Epineurium?
Connective tissue, sheath of a nerve that binds the nerves into nerve bundles
What is Radiculopathy?
Disease of a nerve root
What is Denervation?
Removal of nerve supply to a tissue
What is Idiopathic Polyneuritis?
Pain of unknown origin; usually in the limbs
What is Severe Idiopathic Polyneuritis?
Also known as Guillian Barre Syndrome
What is Pars?
A portion or part of
What is Deafferentation?
Loss of sensory input from any part of the body; usually caused by an interruption of PNS
What is CSF?
- Cebrebral Spinal Fluid -Watery Fluid
- -Continuously Produced and Aborbed
- -Surrounds ventricles of the brain and spinal cord
What is MDT?
Multi Drug Therapy
What is Myelogram?
- Diagnostic procedure where a dye is injected into a spinal cord
- -Reveals anatomy of spinal cord
- -Used to check narrowing
What is Aetiology?
- The origin of something
- -Examiining the causes of a particular phenomenae
What is Conus Medullaris?
Tapering lower extremity of the spinal cord
What is evulsion?
Forceful pulling out or extraction
What is Sciatica?
Pain radiating down lower back to the theigh
What is Hyperalgesia?
An increased intensity of normal pain sensations. In reality, it is an increased nervous system response to stimulus that causes pain.
Hyperalgesia is one possible outcome of damaged nerves.
What is Paravertebral?
Alongside a vertrebrae or vertebral column