BIO40C Lab Quiz 2

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daynuhmay
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154553
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BIO40C Lab Quiz 2
Updated:
2012-05-18 05:53:15
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Urinary System Anatomy
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Urinary System Anatomy
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  1. location of kidneys
    • between the abdominal wall and peritoneum
    • between T12 and L3
  2. retroperitoneal
    behind the peritoneum
  3. Which kidney is lower? Why?
    right; right liver lobe is larger
  4. locate:
    renal hilum
    renal capsule
    renal column
    renal pyramid

    5, 9, 17, 1
  5. locate:
    renal papillae
    major calyx
    minor calyx
    renal pelvis
    ureter
    16, 15, 14, 6, 7
  6. locate:
    renal medulla
    renal cortex
    renal sinus
  7. proximal/distal convoluted tubules, descending/ascending loops of Henle, collecting duct, Bowman's capsule, glomerulus, afferent/efferent arterioles
  8. What type of cells line the parietal layer of the glomerular capsule?
    simple squamous
  9. podocytes
    • modified simple squamous;
    • have pedicels (foot processes) that wrap around glomerular capillaries;
    • found in visceral layer of Bowman's capsule
  10. 7 components of a nephron:
    • 1) renal corpuscle
    • 2) proximal convoluted tubule
    • 3) distal convoluted tubule
    • 4) descending loop of Henle
    • 5) ascending loop of Henle
    • 6) collecting duct
    • 7) papillary duct
  11. 5 components of a renal corpuscle:
    • 1) Bowman's capsule
    • 2) glomerulus
    • 3) afferent arteriole
    • 4) efferent arteriole
    • 5) capsular space
  12. 2 components of the juxtaglomerular apparatus:
    • 1) macula densa
    • 2) juxtaglomerular cells
  13. identify:
    • 1) renal corpuscle
    • 2) proximal convoluted tubule
    • 3) distal convoluted tubule
  14. epithelium of proximal convoluted tubule
    simple cuboidal (with microvilli/brush border)
  15. epithelium of descending loop of Henle
    simple squamous
  16. epithelium of first (thin) section of ascending loop of Henle
    simple squamous
  17. epithelium of second (thick) section of ascending loop of Henle
    simple cuboidal to low columnar
  18. epithelium of distal convoluted tubule
    simple cuboidal (no brush border)
  19. epithelium of collecting ducts
    simple cuboidal
  20. label:
  21. purpose of transitional epithelium
    can distend to accomodate urine
  22. tissue of muscularis
    smooth muscle
  23. epithelium along urethra
    • transitional near urinary bladder
    • stratified/pseudostratified columnar distally
    • stratified squamous near external urethral orifice
  24. lamina propria tissue
    areolar connective tissue
  25. extensions of the cortex, between each pyramid
    renal columns
  26. apex of each pyramid, pointed toward the renal sinus
    renal papilla
  27. cavity that is adjacent to the medulla and extends to the renal hilus
    renal sinus
  28. label:
  29. 3 processes for urine production:
    • 1) filtration
    • 2) tubular reabsorption
    • 3) tubular secretion
  30. major site of tubular reabsorption of water & solutes
    proximal convoluted tubule
  31. Which part of the loop of Henle is more permeable to water but not solutes?
    descending loop of Henle
  32. Which part of the loop of Henle is impermeable to water, but permeable to solutes?
    ascending loop of Henle
  33. What ions are reabsorbed in the late distal convoluted tubules?
    Na+, HCO3-
  34. What ions are secreted in the late distal convoluted tubule?
    K+, H+
  35. aldosterone
    • causes:
    • reabsorption of Na+ & Cl- ions
    • secretion of K+
  36. hormone most important in determining the water content of urine
    • ADH
    • high -> increase water reabsorption -> concetrated urine
    • low -> decrease water reabsorption -> dilute urine
  37. urinalysis
    analysis of the physical, chemical, and microscopic characteristics of urine and a measure of urine volume
  38. specific gravity
    the weight of a volume of urine divided by the weight of the same volume of distilled water
  39. urinometer
    measures specific gravity
  40. range of specific gravity of human urine:
    1.001-1.035
  41. glucosuria
    • glucose in urine
    • usually caused by diabetes mellitus
  42. hematuria
    • RBCs in urine
    • may be caused by inflammation of urinary system organs, kidney disease
  43. pyuria
    • WBCs in urine
    • caused by infection in kidney, ureters, bladder, or urethra
  44. ketonuria
    • ketone bodies in urine
    • caused by ketosis (cells don't have enough glucose to completely break down FAs) due to starvation/diet, diabetes mellitus
  45. albuminuria
    • excess albumin in urine
    • caused by increase in filtration membrane permeability from high BP, kidney trauma, inflammation
  46. high urine pH
    • alkaline
    • vegetarian diet
  47. low urine pH
    • acidic
    • high protein diet
  48. urine volume/concentration change with diabetes mellitus
    • increased volume
    • increased concentration
  49. urine volume/concentration change with diabetes insipidus
    • increased volume
    • decreased concentration

    decreased secretion/response of/to ADH
  50. urine volume/concentration change with Addison's disease
    • increased volume
    • decreased concentration
  51. urine volume/concentration change with kidney failure
    • decreased volume
    • decreased concentration

    (kidneys stop functioning)
  52. proteinuria
    • protein in urine
    • caused by nephritis, severe anemias, hyperthyroidism

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