LS2:Lecture 18

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LS2:Lecture 18
2012-05-18 06:37:09

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  1. Divisions of the Nervous System
    • 1.Central Nervous System: Brain and spinal cord
    • 2.Peripheral Nervous System: Cranial and spinal nerves
  2. PNS Main function
    to connect limbs and organs to the CNS
  3. Divisions of PNS
    • 1. Somatic: voluntary muscles
    • 2. Autonomic: involuntary muscles; cardiac
  4. Divisions of Autonomic Nervous System
    • 1.Sympathetic Nervous System
    • 2. Parasympathetic Nervous System
  5. Sympathetic NS
    • 1.Responseto fight/flight
    • 2. Stimulation=increase of adrenaline/epinephrine
    • Ex. Bear is chasing you
    • -Increase heart rate
    • -more blood to skeletal muscle
    • -less blood to digestive system
  6. Parasympathetic
    • 1. Respond to rest/digest
    • 2. Stimulation=increase of acetylcholine
    • Ex.just ate dinner
    • -Lower heart rate
    • -decrease blood to skeletal muscle
    • -increase blood to digestion
  7. Postganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic division are mostly __________
    mostly cholinergic.
  8. Sympathetic postganglionic neurons are ___________
  9. Sympathetic postganglionic use__________as their neurotransmitter.
  10. The sacral region contains preganglionic neurons of the _____
    parasympathetic region
  11. The thoracic and lumbar regions contain_______preganglionic neurons.
  12. what is a nerve?
    a bundle of axons that carries information
  13. The afferent part of the PNS does what?
    carries sensory information to the CNS.
  14. The efferent part of the PNS does what?
    carries information from the CNS to muscles and glands.
  15. What does the spinal cord do?
    • 1. Deliver PNS information between the brain and organs
    • 2. Responds by issuing motor commands
  16. Anatomy of the spinal cord
    • 1. Gray matter: Center, contains cell bodies
    • 2. White matter: Surrounds gray matter, contains axons
  17. On dorsal side of spinal cord are_____
    afferent nerves
  18. On Ventral side of spinal cord are ______
    efferent nerves
  19. Spinal reflex
    afferent information converts to efferent activity without the brain
  20. The knee-jerk reflex
    • 1. Monosynaptic
    • • Stretch receptors send axon potentials through dorsal horn to ventral horn, via sensory axons
    • • At synapses with motor neurons in the ventral horn, action potentials are sent to leg muscles,causing contraction
  21. what are limb movements controlled by?
    antagonistic muscle sets
  22. Flexors do what to the limb?
    flex or bend the limb
  23. Extensors do what to the limb?
    straighten or extend the limb
  24. Relaxtion and contraction coordination is done by
  25. Medulla Oblongata
    • 1. Controls Autonomic functions
    • -Respiration center
    • -cardiac center
    • -vasomotor center
    • -reflex centers
    • 1.Vomiting
    • 2.Coughing
    • 3.Sneezing
    • 4.Swallowing
  26. Pons used for
    • 1.Sleep
    • 2.Respiration
    • 3.Swallowing
    • 4.Bladder control
    • 5.Posture
  27. Midbrain used for
    • 1.Vision
    • 2.Hearing
    • 3.Sleep/wake
    • 4.Arousal
    • 5.Temperature regulation
  28. inferior colliculus involved in
    • Hearing
    • -Midbrain
  29. superior colliculus involved in
    • Vision
    • -Midbrain
  30. cerebellum is used for
    • 1.Motor control
    • -precision, timing
    • 2.Motor learning
    • Ex. Pitching
  31. Spinocerebellar Ataxia
    • -condition
    • 1. Poor coordination of hands, speech, eye movements
    • 2. Unsteady and clumsy motion of the body
  32. Hippocampus
    • 1.Transfers short-term memory to long term memory
    • 2.Transfer to cortex for long term processing
  33. Place cells
    neurons in the hippocampus that exhibit a high rate of firing whenever an animal is in a specific location
  34. HM
    • -a pacient diagnosed with severe epilepsy
    • -bilaterally removed the hippocampus
    • -could no longer hold any new memory
    • -good at motor memory
  35. The Amygdala
    1. Critical for Fear and Fear memory
  36. Patient SM
    • 1.Fearless
    • -no fear response to live snakes and spiders
  37. Thalamus
    • 1. Relay station
    • -every sensory system except the olfactory relays information through the thalamus
  38. The dominant structure in mammals
    The cerebrum
  39. Cerebral cortex
    • 1. a sheet of gray matter covering each hemisphere that is convoluted to fit into the skull
    • -Gyri-ridges
    • -Sulci-valleys of the cortex ...more surface area
  40. Association cortex
    1. Made up of areas that integrate or associate sensory information or memories
  41. Temporal lobe
    1. Recieves and processes auditory information
  42. Frontal lobe
    • 1. reasoning
    • 2. emotions
    • 3. Problem solving
    • 4.Personality
  43. Central sulcus (Frontal lobe)
    Divides the frontal and parietal lobe
  44. Primary motor cortex
    • 1.Located in front of the central sulcus
    • 2.Controls muscles in specific body areas
  45. Primary Somatosensory Cortex
    • 1.Touch
    • -allowing people to detect and interpret a wide variety of sensations.
  46. Parietal lobe
    • 1.Movement,orientation, recogniton
    • 2.Spatial abilities
    • 3.Integration of sensory information
  47. Occipital lobe
    • 1.Recieves and processes visual information
    • 2. Association areas involve:
    • • Making sense of the visual world
    • • Translating visual experience into language
  48. Broca's area
    • 1. In frontal lobe
    • 2. damage results in slow or lost speech
  49. Wernicke's area
    • 1. In temporal lobe
    • 2. Damage results in inability to speak sensibly
    • 3. written or spoken language not understood
  50. Speech travels
    • 1.formulated inWernicke’s area
    • to Broca’s area
    • 3.then to the primary motor cortex for production.
  51. learning
    Modification of behavior by experience.
  52. memory
    What the nervous system retains.
  53. Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD)
    describe how synapses become more or less responsive to repeated stimuli.
  54. Associative learning
    occurs when two unrelated stimuli become linked to a response.
  55. A conditioned reflex
    type of associative learning.
  56. Conditioned Stimulus (CS) (bell)
    Neutral Stimulus to become associated with the US
  57. Conditioned Response (CR) (salivation)
    Learned response
  58. Unconditioned Stimulus (US) (food)
    Unconditionally and automatically elicits a response
  59. Unconditioned Response (UR) (salivation)
    Unlearned response due to the presentation of the US