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Divisions of the Nervous System
- 1.Central Nervous System: Brain and spinal cord
- 2.Peripheral Nervous System: Cranial and spinal nerves
PNS Main function
to connect limbs and organs to the CNS
Divisions of PNS
- 1. Somatic: voluntary muscles
- 2. Autonomic: involuntary muscles; cardiac
Divisions of Autonomic Nervous System
- 1.Sympathetic Nervous System
- 2. Parasympathetic Nervous System
- 1.Responseto fight/flight
- 2. Stimulation=increase of adrenaline/epinephrine
- Ex. Bear is chasing you
- -Increase heart rate
- -more blood to skeletal muscle
- -less blood to digestive system
- 1. Respond to rest/digest
- 2. Stimulation=increase of acetylcholine
- Ex.just ate dinner
- -Lower heart rate
- -decrease blood to skeletal muscle
- -increase blood to digestion
Postganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic division are mostly __________
Sympathetic postganglionic neurons are ___________
Sympathetic postganglionic use__________as their neurotransmitter.
The sacral region contains preganglionic neurons of the _____
The thoracic and lumbar regions contain_______preganglionic neurons.
what is a nerve?
a bundle of axons that carries information
The afferent part of the PNS does what?
carries sensory information to the CNS.
The efferent part of the PNS does what?
carries information from the CNS to muscles and glands.
What does the spinal cord do?
- 1. Deliver PNS information between the brain and organs
- 2. Responds by issuing motor commands
Anatomy of the spinal cord
- 1. Gray matter: Center, contains cell bodies
- 2. White matter: Surrounds gray matter, contains axons
On dorsal side of spinal cord are_____
On Ventral side of spinal cord are ______
afferent information converts to efferent activity without the brain
The knee-jerk reflex
- 1. Monosynaptic
- • Stretch receptors send axon potentials through dorsal horn to ventral horn, via sensory axons
- • At synapses with motor neurons in the ventral horn, action potentials are sent to leg muscles,causing contraction
what are limb movements controlled by?
antagonistic muscle sets
Flexors do what to the limb?
flex or bend the limb
Extensors do what to the limb?
straighten or extend the limb
Relaxtion and contraction coordination is done by
- 1. Controls Autonomic functions
- -Respiration center
- -cardiac center
- -vasomotor center
- -reflex centers
Pons used for
- 4.Bladder control
Midbrain used for
- 5.Temperature regulation
inferior colliculus involved in
superior colliculus involved in
cerebellum is used for
- 1.Motor control
- -precision, timing
- 2.Motor learning
- Ex. Pitching
- 1. Poor coordination of hands, speech, eye movements
- 2. Unsteady and clumsy motion of the body
- 1.Transfers short-term memory to long term memory
- 2.Transfer to cortex for long term processing
neurons in the hippocampus that exhibit a high rate of firing whenever an animal is in a specific location
- -a pacient diagnosed with severe epilepsy
- -bilaterally removed the hippocampus
- -could no longer hold any new memory
- -good at motor memory
1. Critical for Fear and Fear memory
- -no fear response to live snakes and spiders
- 1. Relay station
- -every sensory system except the olfactory relays information through the thalamus
The dominant structure in mammals
- 1. a sheet of gray matter covering each hemisphere that is convoluted to fit into the skull
- -Sulci-valleys of the cortex ...more surface area
1. Made up of areas that integrate or associate sensory information or memories
1. Recieves and processes auditory information
- 1. reasoning
- 2. emotions
- 3. Problem solving
Central sulcus (Frontal lobe)
Divides the frontal and parietal lobe
Primary motor cortex
- 1.Located in front of the central sulcus
- 2.Controls muscles in specific body areas
Primary Somatosensory Cortex
- -allowing people to detect and interpret a wide variety of sensations.
- 1.Movement,orientation, recogniton
- 2.Spatial abilities
- 3.Integration of sensory information
- 1.Recieves and processes visual information
- 2. Association areas involve:
- • Making sense of the visual world
- • Translating visual experience into language
- 1. In frontal lobe
- 2. damage results in slow or lost speech
- 1. In temporal lobe
- 2. Damage results in inability to speak sensibly
- 3. written or spoken language not understood
- 1.formulated inWernicke’s area
- 2.travel to Broca’s area
- 3.then to the primary motor cortex for production.
Modification of behavior by experience.
What the nervous system retains.
Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD)
describe how synapses become more or less responsive to repeated stimuli.
occurs when two unrelated stimuli become linked to a response.
A conditioned reflex
type of associative learning.
Conditioned Stimulus (CS) (bell)
Neutral Stimulus to become associated with the US
Conditioned Response (CR) (salivation)
Unconditioned Stimulus (US) (food)
Unconditionally and automatically elicits a response
Unconditioned Response (UR) (salivation)
Unlearned response due to the presentation of the US