BIO135 Senescence Notes.txt

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lukemlj
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154560
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BIO135 Senescence Notes.txt
Updated:
2012-05-18 05:43:06
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BIO135 Senescence Notes
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BIO135 Senescence Notes
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  1. The telomere model of senescence is not as strong as ___.
    metabolic pathway
  2. Altering the insulin and insulin-like pathways results in ___.
    • Increase in life span in C. elegans, Drosophila, and mice.
    • Keeps mutant animals healthy with less age-related problems.
  3. Effects of altering the insulin and insulin-like pathways are only detected in ___.
    in the adult and not during developmental stages.
  4. Animals with the mutant insulin pathway are generally ___.
    Smaller
  5. The Daf-2 mutant was first discovered in ___.
    C. elegans
  6. Age-related genes in C. elegans include ___.
    • Age-1 - Phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)
    • Daf-2 - insulin receptor
    • Daf-10 - forkhead transcription factor
  7. Age-related genes in flies include ___.
    • InR - Insulin receptor
    • Chico - fruit fly receptor
  8. Age-related genes in mice include ___.
    IRS1 - insulin receptor substrate 1
  9. In neurons, replacing ___ and ___ of ___ and ___ worms ___ wt age of the worms.
    • age-1, daf-2
    • age-1(-/-), daf-2(-/-)
    • rescues
  10. Mutant with age-1(-/-) and daf-2(-/-) have lifespans that ___.
    are twice as long.
  11. In the metabolic model, in order to increase lifespan, in neuronal tissue, ___.
    • Insulin-signaling needs to be appropriate.
    • Amount of insulin in rest of body (w.r.t. neurons) needs to lowered.
  12. In neuronal tissue, metabolic rate appears to be ___ to lifespan possibly due to ___ and ___.
    • inversely proportional.
    • Exposure to oxidative stress.
    • DNA damage
  13. In fat tissue, ___ knockouts can ___ lifespan.
    • InR
    • extend
  14. In flies, overexpressing ___ or ___ can also extend lifespan.
    • dPTEN
    • dFOXO
  15. Data suggests that a ___ signal originating from fat tissue and the ___ pathway regulates longevity.
    • secondary
    • Insulin/Insulin-like Signaling (IIS)
  16. Why would pathway changes in fat tissue make a difference?
    Related to cardiovascular disease
  17. Germline ___ in worms extends lifespan.
    ablation
  18. Transplantation of ___ into older mice extends their lifespan.
    young ovaries
  19. In mice, mutants have lowered rates of ___, ___, and ___.
    • cancer
    • cardiac problems
    • Alzheimer's disease
  20. There are relatively high numbers of gene variants coding for ___ in ___ species.
    • ligands
    • invertebrate
  21. In vertebrates, there is/are ___ gene(s) coding for insulin, but ___ receptor variants.
    • 1
    • 4
  22. What is the phenotype for IRS-4 knockout?
    mild growth defect in males
  23. What is the phenotype for IRS-2 knockout?
    • short lifespan, diabetes (insulin resistance) in males.
    • longer lifespan if brain-specific
  24. What is the phenotype for IRS-1 knockout?
    extended lifespan in females
  25. Basic areas where lifespan extension mechanisms are unknown include ___ and ___.
    • Downstream mechanisms (e.g. oxidative stress).
    • Multi-gene effects.

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