Bio LAB Exam IV

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Amylou
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Bio LAB Exam IV
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2012-05-18 17:08:59
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Bio LAB Exam IV
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  1. What is the Cell Cyle?
    The repetition of cellular growth and reproduction
  2. What is the first & last step of the Cell Cycle?
    Begins with the formation of a new cell and ends with the replication of that cell.
  3. What are the (2) major periods in the Cell Cycle?
    Interphase (growth & development) & Mitosis
  4. What happends in Interphase? What are the (3) distint phases of Interpahse?
    • DNA Replication
    • a. G1, S, & G2 Phase
  5. What is Chromatin
    • A mass of uncoiled DNA and associated proteins called histones.
    • Chromatin is the uncondensed DNA that is present in the cell during interphase
  6. What are Chromosomes?
    • Individual pieces of chromatin are called chromosomes.
    • Chromosomes are super condensed DNA
    • Imagine if all that chromatin "packed up" and wrapped - like a rope on a spindel
  7. What are Diploid cells
    • Means 2 - these cells have two complete sets of chromosomes.
    • The body cells of animals are diploid.
  8. What are Haploid cells?
    • They have one complete set of chromosomes
    • In animals, gametes (sperm and eggs) are haploid.
  9. What are Gametes?
    Sperm and Eggs
  10. What are Genes
    • the unit of inheritance
    • A small segment of DNA that contains the information necessary to construct a protein
  11. What does Homologous mean?
    Homologous - means the same (HOMO)
  12. Homologous Chromosomes
    • Homologous chromosomes are two chromosomes that are the same.
    • This happens because diploid organisms have two of each chromosome.
    • Each of the pairs is a homologous pair.
    • One of the homologous chromosomes was inherited from the individual's mother and the other one was inherited from the individual's father.
    • For example, the two chromosomes #1 are homologous. However, a chromosome #1 and a chromosome #2 are not homologous because they are different chromosomes.
  13. Meiosis
    Meiosis produces daughter cells that have one half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell.

    2N = 1N

    Meiosis enables organisms to reproduce sexually. Gametes (sperm and eggs) are haploid

    Meiosis is necessary in sexually-reproducing organisms because the fusion of two gametes (fertilization) doubles the number of chromosomes.

    Meiosis involves two divisions producing a total of four daughter cells.
  14. Mitosis
    • Mitosis produces two daughter cells that are identical to the parent cell.
    • If the parent cell is haploid (N), then the daughter cells will be haploid. If the parent cell is diploid, the daughter cells will also be diploid.
    • N = N
    • 2N = 2N
    • This type of cell division allows multicellular organisms to grow and repair damaged tissue.
  15. Homozygous
    Homozygous refers to having identical alleles for a single trait (RR or rr)
  16. Heterozygous
    refers to having two different alleles for a single trait (Rr)
  17. What is Chromatid & Centromere?
    Chromatid is a single DNA molecule.

    Double-stranded chromosomes have two chromatids; normally, each one is identical to the other. The point where the two chromatids are attached is called the centromere.
  18. Allele
    An allele is an alternative form of a gene (one member of a pair) that is located at a specific position on a specific chromosome.
  19. Phenotype
    The observable or detectable characteristics of an individual organism; the detectable expression of a genotype.
  20. The term for a genotype in which there are two recessive alleles.
    homozygous recessive
  21. A genotype consisting of two different alleles of a gene for a particular trait.
    heterozygous genotype
  22. principle of segregation
  23. The genetic makeup of an individual for a trait or for all of his/her inherited traits—not the observable or detectable characteristics
    Genotpe
  24. Gregor Mendel's principle of genetic inheritance stating that, for any particular trait, the pair of genes of each parent separate (during the formation of sex cells) and only one gene from each parent passes on to an offspring.
    principle of segregation
  25. Units of inheritance usually occurring at specific locations, or loci, on a chromosome. These units are responsible for hereditary characteristics in plants and animals.
    Genes
  26. Alternate forms of the same gene. Because they are different, their action may result in different expressions of a trait.
    Alleles
  27. Gregor Mendel's principle of genetic inheritance stating that different pairs of genes are passed to offspring independently so that new combinations of genes, present in neither parent, are possible. In other words, the distribution of one pair of alleles does not influence the distribution of another pair--the genes controlling different traits are inherited independently of one another.
    Principle of independent assortment
  28. The genetic makeup of an individual for a trait or for all of his/her inherited traits—not the observable or detectable characteristics.
    Genotype
  29. The observable or detectable characteristics of an individual organism; the detectable expression of a genotype.
    phenotype

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