Honors chem sem 2 final

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Honors chem sem 2 final
2012-05-19 14:39:54
defs exps

defs and exps
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  1. origin
    the base line of the energy
  2. crest
    high point on a wave
  3. trough
    low point on a wave
  4. amplitude
    distance from origin to crest
  5. wavelength
    • distance from crest to crest
    • Wavelength is abbreviated by the Greekletter lambda
  6. frequency
    The number of waves that pass a given point persecond.
  7. Different wavelengths of light
    Carry different amounts of energy per photon
    Have different frequencies
    Travel at the same speed
  8. groundstate
    atom in the lowest possible state; theelectron’s starting energy level
  9. excited state
    Atom with excess energy
  10. wave model
    According to the theoryof wave mechanics,electrons do not moveabout an atom in adefinite path, like theplanets around the sun
  11. bohr model
    • Electrons move in definiteorbits around the nucleus,much like planets circle thesun.
    • Electrons jump betweenlevels by absorbing oremitting photo of a particularwavelength.
  12. ionization energy
    energy required to remove an electronfrom an individual atom
  13. isoelectronic
    When two elements and/or ions have the sameelectronic configurations
  14. chemical bond
    attractive force between atoms or ions that binds them together as a unit
  15. ionic bonding
    A type of chemical bonding that is the result oftransfer of electrons from one atom to another
  16. covalent compounds
    Form by the sharing of one or more pair ofvalence electrons by two atoms;• Nonmetal + Nonmetal
  17. molecular covalent
    Atoms are covalently connected in manyidentical units called molecules
  18. network covalent
    Valence electrons are shared among atomsthroughout the substance.
  19. metalic compounds (alloys)
    Formed by metallic ions sharing their electronsin a common “sea of valence electrons”
  20. electronegativity
    The ability of one atom to attract e- from another atom
  21. ionic bonds
    e- gained by strongatom and lost by weak atom
  22. polar covalent bonds
    e- shared unequally by 2atoms
  23. non polar covalent bonds
    e- shared equally by 2atoms
  24. dipoles
    2 opposite charges separated by a smalldistance
  25. isomers
    Describes what occurs when two molecules havethe same chemical formula (same atoms) butdifferent structural formulas (bonds).
  26. what does VESPR satnd for
    Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory
  27. what does the VESPR theory state?
    Electron pairs orient themselves to be as far apartas possible.
  28. intermolecular forces
    Attractive forces that occur between molecules
  29. polymer
    large chainlike molecules made from many smallmolecules called monomers
  30. Condensation polymerization
    a small molecule(often water) is released for each addition of amonomer to the polymer chain
  31. standard temperature and poressure (stp)
    1 atm (or the equivalent inanother unit) and 0°C (273 K)
  32. standard molar volume
    he volume of 1 moleof any gas at STP = 22.4 L
  33. energy
    The ability to do work or produceheat
  34. potential energy
    energy due toposition or composition.
  35. Kinetic energy
    energy due to themotion of an object.
  36. Internal energy
    Sum of the kinetic and potentialenergies of all particles in thesystem.
  37. law of conservation of energy
    Energy can be converted from oneform to another, but cannot becreated or destroyed
  38. thermodynamics
    the study of energy
  39. temperature
    measure of the random motion (averagekinetic energy) of the particles that make upthe substance
  40. heat
    Heat is the flow of energy due to atemperature difference
  41. enthalpy
    Takes into account the internal energy ofthe sample along with the pressure andvolume
  42. exothermic
    A process in which energy (as heat) flows out ofa system into the surroundings.
  43. endothermic
    A process in which energy (as heat) flows intothe system from the surroundings; energy isabsorbed from their surroundings.
  44. solution
    homogeneous mixture, in whichone material completely dissolves in another.
  45. solvent
    the dissolving medium in a solution
  46. solute
    the substance dissolved in the solventto make a solution
  47. what are Factors Affecting the Rate of Dissolving
    • surface area
    • stirring
    • temperature
  48. concentration
    Any measurement of how much solute is dissolvedin a solution
  49. saturated solution
    Solution containing as much solute as will dissolve at thattemperature.
  50. unsaturated
    Solution in which more solute can dissolve at thattemperature
  51. supersaturated
    Solution containing more solute than a saturated solutionwill hold at that temperature
  52. mass percent
    a concentration unit that usesmass of the solute and mass of solution
  53. molarity
    a concentration unit that usesmoles of the solute and Liters of solution
  54. dilution
    the process of adding solvent to asolution to lower the concentration of solute.
  55. The Bronsted-Lowry Model states that...
    • Acid – proton donor
    • Base – proton acceptor
  56. pH scale
    • a scale to measure the acidity of asample
    • or
    • Logarithmic scale of theacidity of a solution
  57. 3 ways to measure pH
    • Liquid indicators
    • Universal indicator
    • Paper Indicators (litmus paper)
    • pH meters or pH probes
  58. logarithm
    The number of times abase must be multiplied by itself toreach a given number
  59. pOH scale
    Logarithmic scale of thealkalinity of a solution
  60. titration
    A technique in which a solution of knownconcentration (standardized solution) is used todetermine the concentration of another solution
  61. standardized solution
    A solution in which the concentration is accuratelyknown
  62. End Point (or Stoichiometric Point)
    When there is no reactant left over—all reactants havereacted and the solution contains only products
  63. indicators
    Paper or liquid that changes color based on pHlevel.
  64. Titration curve (pH curve)
    A plot of pH of solution versus volume of titrantadded to a given solution
  65. buret
    A device used for the accurate measurement of thedelivery of a given volume of liquid or solution.