Honors chem sem 2 final
Card Set Information
Honors chem sem 2 final
defs and exps
the base line of the energy
high point on a wave
low point on a wave
distance from origin to crest
distance from crest to crest
Wavelength is abbreviated by the Greekletter lambda
The number of waves that pass a given point persecond.
Different wavelengths of light
Carry different amounts of energy per photon
Have different frequencies
Travel at the same speed
atom in the lowest possible state; theelectron’s starting energy level
Atom with excess energy
According to the theoryof wave mechanics,electrons do not moveabout an atom in adefinite path, like theplanets around the sun
Electrons move in definiteorbits around the nucleus,much like planets circle thesun.
Electrons jump betweenlevels by absorbing oremitting photo of a particularwavelength.
energy required to remove an electronfrom an individual atom
When two elements and/or ions have the sameelectronic configurations
attractive force between atoms or ions that binds them together as a unit
A type of chemical bonding that is the result oftransfer of electrons from one atom to another
Form by the sharing of one or more pair ofvalence electrons by two atoms;• Nonmetal + Nonmetal
Atoms are covalently connected in manyidentical units called molecules
Valence electrons are shared among atomsthroughout the substance.
metalic compounds (alloys)
Formed by metallic ions sharing their electronsin a common “sea of valence electrons”
The ability of one atom to attract e- from another atom
e- gained by strongatom and lost by weak atom
polar covalent bonds
e- shared unequally by 2atoms
non polar covalent bonds
e- shared equally by 2atoms
2 opposite charges separated by a smalldistance
Describes what occurs when two molecules havethe same chemical formula (same atoms) butdifferent structural formulas (bonds).
what does VESPR satnd for
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory
what does the VESPR theory state?
Electron pairs orient themselves to be as far apartas possible.
Attractive forces that occur between molecules
large chainlike molecules made from many smallmolecules called monomers
a small molecule(often water) is released for each addition of amonomer to the polymer chain
standard temperature and poressure (stp)
1 atm (or the equivalent inanother unit) and 0°C (273 K)
standard molar volume
he volume of 1 moleof any gas at STP = 22.4 L
The ability to do work or produceheat
energy due toposition or composition.
energy due to themotion of an object.
Sum of the kinetic and potentialenergies of all particles in thesystem.
law of conservation of energy
Energy can be converted from oneform to another, but cannot becreated or destroyed
the study of energy
measure of the random motion (averagekinetic energy) of the particles that make upthe substance
Heat is the flow of energy due to atemperature difference
Takes into account the internal energy ofthe sample along with the pressure andvolume
A process in which energy (as heat) flows out ofa system into the surroundings.
A process in which energy (as heat) flows intothe system from the surroundings; energy isabsorbed from their surroundings.
homogeneous mixture, in whichone material completely dissolves in another.
the dissolving medium in a solution
the substance dissolved in the solventto make a solution
what are Factors Affecting the Rate of Dissolving
Any measurement of how much solute is dissolvedin a solution
Solution containing as much solute as will dissolve at thattemperature.
Solution in which more solute can dissolve at thattemperature
Solution containing more solute than a saturated solutionwill hold at that temperature
a concentration unit that usesmass of the solute and mass of solution
a concentration unit that usesmoles of the solute and Liters of solution
the process of adding solvent to asolution to lower the concentration of solute.
The Bronsted-Lowry Model states that...
Acid – proton donor
Base – proton acceptor
a scale to measure the acidity of asample
Logarithmic scale of theacidity of a solution
3 ways to measure pH
Paper Indicators (litmus paper)
pH meters or pH probes
The number of times abase must be multiplied by itself toreach a given number
Logarithmic scale of thealkalinity of a solution
A technique in which a solution of knownconcentration (standardized solution) is used todetermine the concentration of another solution
A solution in which the concentration is accuratelyknown
End Point (or Stoichiometric Point)
When there is no reactant left over—all reactants havereacted and the solution contains only products
Paper or liquid that changes color based on pHlevel.
Titration curve (pH curve)
A plot of pH of solution versus volume of titrantadded to a given solution
A device used for the accurate measurement of thedelivery of a given volume of liquid or solution.