ch 11

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ch 11
2012-05-18 19:54:50

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  1. Endocrine Glands
    gland that produces a secretion
  2. exocrine gland
    secretions from gland must go through duct, duct carries secretions to a body surface or organ
  3. islets of Langerhans
    cells in pancreas which secrete the hormone insulin directly into the blood stream
  4. Negative feedback
    occurs when there is a drop in the level of a hormone, drop triggers chain reaction of responses to increase the amount of hormone in the blood

    level drops, hypothalamus gets msg, sends releasing hormone to anterior pituatary gland, releases hormone which stimulates gland, level rises
  5. pituitary gland
    tiny structure about 10mm and 0.5g, located at base of brain in sella turcica. major influence of activities of body
  6. anterior pituitary lobe pt 1
    secretes: Growth hormone (GH) or (somatotrophin)- responsible for growth and development, helps fats to be used for energy, saving glucose & helping maintain blood sugar levels.

    Prolactin hormone (PRL)- develops breast tissue and stimulates the production of milk after child birth. unknown effect in males

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulates the growth and secretion of the thyroid gland
  7. anterior pituitary lobe pt 2
    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)- stimulates the growth and secretion of the adrenal cortext

    Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)- stimulates the growth of the graafian follice and the production of estrogen in females, and stimulates the production of sperm in males

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates ovulation and the formation of the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone in females
  8. anterior pituitary lobe pt 3
    Interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH)- necessary for the production of testosterone by the interstitial cells of the testes in men

    melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)- is responsible for increasing skin pigmentation
  9. posterior pituitary lobe
    stores hormones produced by hypothalamus

    1. Vasopressin- converts to antidiuretic hormone or ADH in the bloodstream.

    2. Oxytocin- released during childbirth, causing strong contractions of the the uterus. It also causes contractions when a mother is breastfeeding. Synthetic form called- pitocin
  10. thyroid gland
    butterfly shaped mass of tissue located in anterior part of neck. secretes 3 hormones, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and calcitonin
  11. Triiodothyronine
    5 to 10 times more active than thyoxine but activity is less prolonged. Produced in follicle cells of thyroid gland.
  12. Thyroxine
    controls rate of metabolism, heat production, and oxidation of cells, with possible exception of brain and spleen. It can speed up or slow down the activities of the body as needed. Helps change glycogen into glucose

    functions of both- stimulates protein synthesis and helps tissue growth, stimulates the breakdown of liver glycogen.
  13. Calcitonin
    controls calcium ion concentration in the body by maintaining a proper calcium level in the bloodstream, lowers calcium level when it is too high.